What is the full form of FPR

Everyone knows how mysterious and difficult it is to learn Russian. A multitude of parts of speech and their various forms "live" in it. Short and full participles are particularly complex. The distinguishing features of these verb forms are considered in more detail.

properties

The linguists have not yet decided what place the sacraments should have in morphology. The authors of Russian-language textbooks have a completely different view of this question. Some argue that it is just a form of the verb that expresses not only the action but also its attribute. Others say it is completely independent and attribute it to parts of the language. However, one thing is known: short and complete participles are simply irreplaceable for our speech. Without it, we will use the word "which" endlessly. For example:

A singing person is a person who sings.

A sick child is a child who is sick.

The work done is the work done.

The Lord's Supper has various dependent words and is part of the Lord's Supper that adorns our speech.

For example: The wind from the sea refreshed my face.

Full shape

One of the characteristics of this part of the speech is the ability to shape yourself. It is more than adjectives, it is not subject to any idiom.

The full and short forms of the participles differ both grammatically and syntactically. How not to get them mixed up? The full form is called passive participles, which usually answer the question "what". They are called passive because in their meaning they assume an action that is performed by someone.

It is impossible to make short ones.

An example: Acquired - acquired, resolved - resolved.

Briefly and completely perform various syntactic functions. All because they have different goals. The full form in which the "what" question is answered is a definition. This is their main similarity to the name adjective.

Therefore, the participle included in sales is usually referred to as a separate definition.

Don't forget the punctuation marks. If it only contains complete forms, it comes after the word to be defined. In this case, commas must be inserted on both sides.

The forest, shrouded in mist, is very beautiful.

If the turnover goes after the noun, then in this situation do not put the commas under any circumstances: The timely execution was approved.

short form

As we have found, short and full participles are similar in many ways, but they play different roles in sentences.

This shape is formed by cutting the ends off the full one and attaching other ends: done - done (Remove the -th and part of the suffix by adding -a).

Consider the sentence: The trip was paid for. The short form of the full participle "Paid" is no longer a characteristic of an attribute through action. Now she shows the process herself and is part of the predicate. The short form is therefore the main element of the proposal.

The main feature is that short and full participles can vary depending on the birth. Written - Written, Put - Put, Lost - Lost.

To distinguish them is not that difficult. A correctly asked question about the sacrament helps to easily distinguish the short form from the full form.

introduction

In Russian language

Grammatical signs

Participating sales

Hints

introduction

Communion (lat. participiumbrilliant fire - brilliant performance.


In Russian language

-ush-read) and -ash-holdOh, -em- for verbs of the first conjugation ( driven) and -in the- - for verbs of the second conjugation ( tracked).

-Your-held) Use suffix -sh-grow up).

isshrunk) Of verbs with a suffix wellfaded - hidden.

-nn- (from verbs to at: read, lost), nen (from verbs to is a and -ch: baked), -t- (from monosyllabic verbs: wrinkled).

proven) and short ( checkeddriven, readableto beat, to cover, to feed


Grammatical signs

The Lord's Supper can be of perfect and imperfect form, past and present. These signs of the sacrament do not change.

Some scholars consider the participles to be an independent part of the language because they have a number of features that are not characteristic of the verb.

Participles, as forms of the verb, share some of its grammatical features. you are Perfect Kind and imperfect; the presence time and past; reusable and irrevocable. Forms of the future tense have no participle.

Communions are real and passive.

Participles, which, like adjectives, denote the attribute of an object, are grammatically dependent on nouns corresponding to them, that is, they become number and gender in the same case as the nouns to which they refer.

The participles vary from case to case, from number to gender (singular).

The case, number, and gender of the participles is determined by the case, number, and gender of the noun to which the participles belong. Some participles and adjectives have a full and short form.

Real participles of the present

They are formed from imperfect verbs that are transitive and intransitive and use the suffixes -us- (-yu-) and -ash- (-yas-).

-ush- (-yu-) is written when the participle is formed from the verb I conjugations.

-ash- (-yash-) is written when the participle is formed from the conjugation of Verb II

Real past participles

Formed from perfect verbs using suffixes:

-vsh- is used in words whose stem ends in a vowel

-sh- is used in words whose stem ends in a consonant

rain to water the floor.

horror to fly on the wings of the night.

man read a book

Fallen leaves from the tree.

Passive community of the present

Formed from incomplete verbs, transitive with the suffixes -em- and -im-:

-im- is written when the participle is formed from the conjugation of verb II.

-em-; -om- is written when the participle is formed from the verb I of the conjugation.

Passive past participles

Formed from perfectly formed verbs, transitive with the suffixes -en- (-ёnn-); -nn-; -t-; -en- (-ёn-); -n-.

earth watered the rain.

plant farmed in the garden.

book read from us.

The participle is a separate part of speech or a special form of a verb in Russian that indicates an additional action in the main action. This part of language combines the characteristics of a verb (type, voice, transitivity and repetition) and adverbs (immutability, syntactic role of circumstances). Answer questions what to do what to have done

Similar verb forms exist in many Indo-European languages ​​- Russian, Latin, French, as well as Turk, Finno-Ugric and other languages. In other languages ​​it can be called a gerund.

Holy Communion in Russian

The participle in Russian is originally based on the impersonal, i.e. the short form of the nominative of the Lord's Supper, and was created in Old Russian because the forms of the declension of impersonal participles have been lost. However, it also has the properties of a verb - for example, a promise.

imperfect - denotes the present and the past. It is formed from incomplete verbs using suffixes. but (th) and answers the question “What are you doing?” If the participle is in the past tense, it is in the sentence before the predicate, if in the future - after it.

Perfect - indicates the past tense and answers the question "What did you do?" Example: extract - extract, crouch - crouch, crouch.

The past tense participles with the ending -lice (formerly know, travel, have, plow, lick, stick) are considered obsolete [ source not specified 951 days] and are usually of little use, having previously identified an action that has just been completed to this day: "After saying this, he sat down," "after seeing this, he has the pitchfork." packed ". Nowadays they are used in the form of oneself, formed from reflexive verbs: wash yourself - wash yourself, pronounce - pronounce, dissect - dissect, starve - starve, etc.

Syntactic role

Usually comes next to a verb that acts as a predicate, is a circumstance and not conjugated.

It is less likely to border a nominal predicate expressed by a short adjective or noun.

Examples

"He laughed out loud when he spoke."

"An arrow that flies pierced a tree."

"Winter. The triumphant farmer in the forest renews the way "

"Without graduating from high school, I had to get a job."

"The car, rushed, left a lot of smoke."

Partial sales

Clerical Revenue - Clerical fellowship along with dependent words adding an extra effect. It is important that this action is taken by the same person or object who is taking the main action in the proposal.

The participle turnover answers the questions “What are you doing?” Or “What are you doing?”.

Example: Without opening my eyes, I enjoyed the morning chirping of birds.

The use of the participle turnover is only permitted if the participle turnover and the verb predicate (to which the participle turnover refers) indicate the action of the same person or the same object.

Example of improper use of the sacramental participle:

Examples of offers with participatory conditions

introduction

In Russian language

Grammatical signs

Examples of the true participle

Examples of passion communion

Participating sales

Hints

introduction

Communion (lat. participiumGreek. μετοχή) is an independent word component or (depending on your point of view) a special form of a verb that has both the properties of a verb and an adjective. Displays the attribute of an element by action and answers questions What? What do What has What has The verbal signs of the participle are a category of a form, a promise, and also a special predicative form of time. Adjective (associated with the name adjective) Signs of the participle are categories of gender, number and case, the possibility of forming short forms in passive participles, the syntactic function of a consistent definition. In addition, participles usually turn into adjectives: brilliant fire - brilliant performance.

The Lord's Supper is used in the Russian language, in Hungarian as well as in many Eskimo languages ​​(e.g. in Sirenic). In other languages, together with the participle, forms a special part of the language - English. Partly German participle.


In Russian language

The question of the status of the Lord's Supper has been controversial and is being resolved in Russian studies, but linguists agree that the participles are derived from the verb. The community is closely related to the category of species and transitivity. For example, present and past participles can be formed from imperfect verbs and only past participles can be formed from perfect verbs. In addition, passive participles can only be formed from transitive verbs. The present participles are formed from the present. Valid pledge forms with suffixes -ush- for verbs of the first conjugation ( read) and -ash- - for verbs of the second conjugation ( hold) The passive forms of the present are formed with suffixes. Oh, -em- for verbs of the first conjugation ( driven) and -in the- - for verbs of the second conjugation ( tracked).

Past participles are formed from the core of the infinitive. Valid participles are formed with the suffix -Your- for verbs whose stem ends in a vowel ( held) Use suffix -sh- Such participles are formed from consonant verbs ( grow up).

Some verbs have peculiarities in the formation of participles; such verbs include verbs is, the formation of which cuts off the original base ( shrunk) Of verbs with a suffix well two forms of participles are possible, for example faded - hidden.

Passive participles of the past are formed by suffixes. -nn- (from verbs to at: read, lost), nen (from verbs to is a and -ch: baked), -t- (from monosyllabic verbs: wrinkled).

Passive participles are usually full ( proven) and short ( checked) forms. Short forms vary depending on gender and number. Far from all current passive participles, however, have a short form. Since the passive participles of the present ( driven, readable) mainly refer to book language, there are some stylistic restrictions in the formation of such forms. From colloquial and some neutral verbs (e.g. to beat, to cover, to feed and so on) often existing passive participles are not formed. Also, not all verbs form passive participles in Russian.


Grammatical signs

The participle changes according to the characteristics of the adjective. It varies in numbers, in cases, in clans in the singular.

Russian is considered to be one of the most difficult to learn. And this fact can very easily be explained just by the number of parts of speech it contains, not to mention their particular forms. In the Russian language school course, the participle is introduced by children precisely as a special verb form, but many linguists claim that it is a separate part of the language that has its own grammatical features.

Communion in Russian

The textbook definition for 7th grade sounds something like this: participle is a special form of words that denote an action with pronounced signs of the name of the adjective that answers questions Which? what to do and what to do? In fact, these are verbs that describe the action of an object and at the same time determine its properties in a certain period of time. It is this feature of this part of the speech that is not only a stumbling block in determining its independence, but also a common mistake in designating the function of words in a sentence that refers to them. Very often school children confuse Communion with verbs or adjectives. Such errors lead to incorrect spelling of words and incorrect punctuation in the sentence. How can one distinguish a participle from a verb or adjective, how can one understand whether it is a full or a short participle? This article provides examples of how participles are formed from verbs in different conjugations. Here you will also find a description of real passive participles and verbal adjectives.

Similarities of the participles with the verb and adjective

Communion includes grammatical features of two parts of speech: a verb and an adjective. Like a verb, it can have a perfect and incomplete form, or in other words, it can mean a completed or incomplete action. It can take the form of a repetition and can be real or passive. As with adjectives, there is a full and short participle. In addition, this form of the verb varies depending on gender, case, and number, which may well mean its independence. It should also be noted that the participle can only have the present and past tense. It has no future shape. For example: jumping - an incomplete view in the present and jumping - a perfect view in the past tense.

Communion functions

All participles are divided into two types depending on which sign they show: passive (indicates the sign of the subject to which the action relates) and real (indicates the sign of the subject who took the action). For example: guided - guided, unlocked - opened. Depending on which verb is used to form the participle, a different form of the tense arises. For example: look - look, look, look; View - viewed, viewed. The example shows that the past and present participles are formed from the verb of the imperfect form, where there is no indication that the action will be completed, and only the past from the perfect form.From this it can also be concluded that the participle formation is directly related to the type and transitivity of the verb whose form it represents. Passive participles are again divided into two types: short communion and full communion. Another characteristic of the participle is that, together with the words that depend on it, it often forms a rotation, which is indicated by commas in the letter.

Valid participles

In order to form real participles in the present tense, the initial form of the verb is taken and the suffix is ​​added to the first conjugation -ush-, -yush-and the second -ash-, -yash-. For example: jump - gallop, treat - treat. Suffixes for the formation of the real participle in the past tense -ty- and -ty- replaced by -sh- and -vsh-. For example: travel, wear.

Community of passion

Passive participles are also created by replacing suffixes. Suffixes are used to form the present tense for the first conjugation of verbs. -em-and the second -in the-. For example: love - love, keep. In order to get the passive participle of the past tense, the infinitive with the ending is used -at or -at and adds a suffix to the verb -nn-. For example: pull - pull, glue. For verbs with the ending -it Participles use the suffix call-. For example: to paint - dyed, to bleach - bleached. When the end of the verb -to, -ut or -washThen use the suffix to get the participle -t-. For example: inflate - inflated, flogged.

Short and full communion

Passive participles have two forms: short and complete. The short participle has the same grammatical characteristics as the short name adjective. They consist of the full form of the Lord's Supper and can vary in number and type, but are not inclined in individual cases. In a sentence, the short participle often appears as the nominal part of the compound predicate. For example: i am not loved by anyone. However, there are exceptions where the short participle is used as a separate definition for the subject. For example: pale as a toadstool. The full participles contain grammatical features of both the adjective and the verb, and in the sentence they are always a definition.

Sacraments and verbal adjectives

The participles are not only characterized by the presence of morphological features of the verb, their meaning in the sentence is especially important. You have the ability to subordinate words while creating phrases that have already been mentioned. But if temporary signs that bind the plot to itself are lost, then the sign of the object becomes permanent. And that can only mean that the participle has lost all of its verbal attributes and has become an adjective that depends on the noun. For example: reserved character, taut strings, good mood. Given the possibility of transferring the participle to the adjective, one should carefully analyze the word so as not to confuse these two similar but different parts of speech.

The scheme of the morphological analysis of the Lord's Supper

Although the Lord's Supper is not divided into a separate, independent part of language, it is only said that it is a special verb form with elements of the adjective, but the morphological analysis follows the same scheme as the analysis of independent parts of language. First you determine the name, in this case the participle. Its morphological features are described below: The initial shape is determined. That is, they put the word in the nominative in the masculine gender and in the singular; Describe the permanent characters that contain the following indicators: actual participle or passive, indicate the time the word is used in the sentence and the type of participle; The next item is a description of the intermittent characters: number, gender, and upper / lower case (for full participles). At the end of the parsing, they describe the syntactic function of the participle in the sentence (whether it is a definition or acts as a nominal part of the predicate).

The meaning of the participle, its morphological features and its syntactic function

Communion- A special (non-conjugated) form of the verb, denoting a sign of an object through action, answers the question which one? (What?)and combines the features of a verb and an adjective. In the sentence communion can be a definition or a nominal part of a compound nominal predicate: At night, exhausted from poison, insomnia and wine, I stand and breathe in front of a lightening window that opened into the fog (G. Ivanov); Nice has begun glorious work ... (A. Akhmatova).(Together with dependent words, the participle forms participatory turnoverwhich in school practice is usually considered to be a member of the sentence: tormented by the poisonous night; with a lightening window in the fog.)

Sign of the verb and adjective in the participle

Verb attributes

Adjective characters

1st type (imperfect and perfect): burn(mismatching) the forest(of burn)- burned(Sov.v.) the forest(of burn out).

1. General meaning (like the adjective, the participle calls article tagand answered the question which one?).

2. Transition / intransition: to sing(who what?) a song- to run.

2. Gender, number, case (as an adjective, the participle varies by gender, numbers, and cases, and the gender, number, and case of the participle depend on the gender, number, and case of the noun with which the participle is associated , ie the participle consequentwith a noun): Ripe ear, ripe berries, ripe apple, ripe fruit.

3. Return / irrevocability: lifting a load- rising smoke.

3. Declination (participles are bent like adjectives), see: Eve- burn in the evening- burning evening- burnetc.

4. Actual meaningful value (pledge): enemy attacking battalion- enemy battalion attacked.

4. The syntactic function (both participles and adjectives in a sentence are definitions or a nominal part of a compound nominal predicate).

5. Time (present and past): read(the presence) - read(Past tense).

5. Short forms (the participle can have short forms like the adjective): built- built, included- closed

Note. The real / passive meaning and time are expressed in participles with special suffixes.

Communion matters

Communion are divided into real and passive.

Validcommunion identify the sign of an object through the action that the object itself performs: running boy- sign of a boythrough action to runwhat the boy himself does.

Suffercommunion denote the sign of an object by the action that another object takes (i.e. the sign of the object on which the action is or will be taken): broken glass (by a boy)- sign cupsthrough action smashedwhich obliges a young.

And validand passive communion can be present and past tense (participles have no future tense).

Communion education

1. Communion Present tense (both real and passive) are only formed from verbs of an imperfect form (verbs of a perfect form do not have them) communions Presence).

2. Suffering communion formed only from transitive verbs (intransitive verbs have no passive communions).

3. Communion Present tense (real and suffering) are formed from the present tense.

4. Communion The past tense (both real and passive) is formed from the core of the infinitive.

5. Suffering communion the past tense is mostly made up of perfect verbs.

Valid communion presence-ush - / - yush-(from verbs that I conjugate) and -ash - / - box-(from verbs of the 2nd conjugation): pish -ut - writing,numaj- ym - read(from conjugation verbs I); scream - scream, say - speak(from verbs of the II. conjugation).

Valid communion Past tenseformed by suffixes -vsh-, -sh-: write- scrawled- screamed, carry - carried.

Suffer communion presenceformed by suffixes -em-, -oh-(from verbs I conjugations) and -in the-(from verbs of the 2nd conjugation): cheatjut- legible (chitae] miy), Ved-ut- led, dear - beloved.

Some transitive verbs of an imperfect passive type communions present do not form: wait, prick, take, puree, rub, dig, wash, water, write, build, chopetc.

Suffer communion Past tenseformed by suffixes -nn-, -nn-, -t-: read- read, build - build, open- open.

suffix nenconnects the basics of the consonant (n rinestea- brought)or on (Note - noticed).

Communion verbs

Valid

Suffer

presence

Elapsed time

presence

Elapsed time

isof verbs that I conjugate; ash (box)ofverb conjugation II

-Your ■ w

Ohof verbs that I conjugate; -in thefrom verbs of the II conjugation

-nn, -nn, -t

Incomplete transitions

Read

+ read

Readable

+ read

Transitional perfect view

Read

Read

Intransitive incomplete species

To sit

To sit

-

Intransitive perfect look

Blooms

Note. Most imperfect transitional verbs are not passive communions Past tense.

Short form of the participles

Passionate communion can have short form: I don't love anyone! (G. Ivanov)

In short form Participles (as well as short adjectives) only vary according to numbers and in the singular according to gender (short forms do not change according to cases).

Short form of the participlesLike the short form of adjectives, it is formed from the basis of the whole participationswith endings: Null - the masculine form, but- female, approximately - average, s- Plural: decide, solve, solve, solve; built, built, built, built.

In the sentence short form of the Lord's Supper is the nominal part of the composite nominal predicate: And the sailboat is illuminated with a copper-red sunset (G. Ivanov).Short communion can sometimes play the role of definition, but only isolatedand only related to the topic: Pale as a shadow, dressed in the morning , Tatiana is waiting: when is the answer? (A. Pushkin)

Sacraments and verbal adjectives

Communion differ from adjectives not only in the morphological features of the verb, but also in their meaning. Adjectives indicate permanent signs of objects and communion - characters that develop over time. For example, compare: red- blushing, flushed; the old- aging, aging.

Communion can lose the meaning and properties of the verb and turn into adjectives. In this case communion It already indicates a constant attribute of an object (loses the time category), loses the ability to carry subordinate (dependent) words and manage nouns: upset piano, defiant look, novice poet, brilliant answer.Wed: Like him and Tit Nikonych ... loved by everyone(Communion) and love everyone (I. Goncharov)and When she played the piano, my beloved(Adjective) plays ... I liked to listen (A. Chekhov).

Easiest to pass passively into adjectives communion: reserved character, good mood, strained relationships, confused look.

Communion is mainly used in the styles of the book language and is almost never used in the colloquial household.

Communion morphology includes the assignment of three permanent characters (real or passive, type, time) and four unstable characters (full or short form, gender, number and case). The participles, as well as the verbs from which they are formed, are characterized by transition - intransigence, repetition - irrevocability. These permanent symptoms are not included in the generally accepted analysis scheme, but can be noted.

The scheme of the morphological analysis of the Lord's Supper.

I. Part of speech (a special form of the verb).

II. Morphological signs.

1. The initial form (nominative singular masculine).

2. Permanent symptoms:

1) real or passive;

3. Temporary symptoms:

1) full or short form (in passive participles);

4) case (especially in full form).

C. Syntactic function. A remote monastery, lit by the rays of the sun, seemed to float in the air, carried by clouds. (A. Pushkin)

Sample morphological analysis of the Lord's Supper.

I. Illuminated(Monastery) - the sacrament, a special form of the verb, designates a sign of an object formed from the verb through action to illuminate.

II. Morphological signs. 1. The initial shape is illuminated -

2. Permanent symptoms:

1) passive communion;

2) past tense;

3) look perfect.

3. Temporary symptoms:

1) complete form;

2) singular;

3) male gender;

4) nominative.

III. Syntax function. A sentence is an agreed definition (or: is part of a separate agreed definition expressed in terms of a specific turnover).

Before we dive into brief participles, let us recall what part of the speech this is. In school it is characterized as a special form of the verb that denotes an action sign. However, some linguists believe that this is a part of the language in its own right. After all, he is distinguished by some signs that are not present in the verb.

Like the verb, the participle is perfect and imperfect and has the present and past tense. (Note that it has no future tense). For example: laughing- imperfect appearance, presence, or has laughed- perfect vision, past tense. This part of the language can be replaced by the verb from which it was formed. For example: invited guest - guest invited.

But like the adjective, the participle varies in numbers and genres: read - read - read - read. (For comparison the adjective: funny - funny - funny - funny) And just like an adjective, it has a full and short form.

Features of the formation of short communion

Briefly, one of the forms of passive participation, indicating the sign of an object experiencing external actions, is: is open - briefly passive (compare: open - completely passive). In a sentence, the full form usually acts as a definition, and the short form of this word article is always a predicate, for example: I saw her shoulders wrapped in handkerchiefs. Shoulders wrapped in a scarf(wrapped in - definition and wrapped in- the predicate).

Short communion is most often formed with suffixes- and -t-. For example: awayto end. In contrast to the full form, the short form has a n: Cases nns - sruble nis paved nnwow - paving ns.By the way, you should remember the common speech mistake when using one suffix instead of another when forming a short form. The house is clean to - instead of the normative: away.

The short participle varies in numbers: configured - configured, started - started etc. In the singular it varies by gender: simplified - simplified - simplified; grown - grown - grown.

In order not to confuse the short form of adjectives and participles, it is necessary to clearly distinguish which part of the word the given word consists of. The short participle comes from the verb and the short adjective comes from the full form of the adjective, for example: abandoned - thrown - thrown; good is good

How to distinguish between a short adjective and a short participle. Examples

Let's use an example to learn to distinguish between a verb adjective and a short participle . He was uneducated. How can you tell what part of the speech is ahead of us? Let's argue. When the Lord's Supper is before us, we can always ask a question from it in the instrumental case. He was uneducated (by whom?) - You cannot ask like that because the meaning of what is being said is lost. In this context uneducated - a short adjective, as it can also be replaced by a synonym: illiterate.