What is a unitary process

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Glossary: ​​environmental sciences

The following glossary provides a small selection of environmentally relevant terms. The definitions were taken from various sources on the Internet and revised. Legal terms refer in almost all cases to the situation in the FRG. A website with a very extensive collection of on-line lexicons, glossaries and dictionaries on the topics can be found at:
http://home8.inet.tele.dk/p-spitz/Bookmarks/Bookmarks6A.html
You can find additional articles on a number of key words on the website of the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia.
The glossary is currently under construction and will be expanded further.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A.

Anthropogenic
The term anthropogenic (from the Greek anthropos = man and from genese = generation / creation) denotes everything that is influenced, caused or produced by man.

Work utilization -> load factor

B.

Biomass
The totality of living organisms related to a specific volume or area unit: often a measure of the vegetation cover.

Fuel cell
A fuel cell is a galvanic cell that converts the chemical reaction energy of a continuously supplied fuel and an oxidizing agent into electrical energy. Usually as a catalytic ("cold") combustion process -> more

BGBl.
Federal Law Gazette

BLärmG
Federal Environmental Noise Protection Act

BLärmV
Federal Environmental Noise Protection Ordinance

BMLFUW
BunBML, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management

C.

Carcinogen -> carcinogen

D.

dB
Abbreviation for the unit decibel. The Bel is used to identify the decadic logarithm of the ratio of two similar power or energy quantities. -> more

Rotary kiln
The rotary kiln is a furnace for continuous processes in process engineering -> more

Thin film cells
Solar cells with a semiconductor layer that is only micrometer-thick on a carrier substance (in contrast to cells made from wafers).

E.

Unitary process
Used as a synonym for a module in a life cycle assessment.

Elemental flow
Definition according to ISO standard: substance or energy that is supplied to the examined product system or unit process and has been removed from the environment without prior treatment by humans.
Substance or energy that leaves the product system or unit process to be examined and is released into the environment without subsequent treatment by humans.

emission
Release of substances (gases, aerosols, dusts) or energy (radiation, heat, noise) into the environment (atmosphere).

Energy density
a measure of the energy per volume of a material (volumetric energy density, unit joule / m3) or a measure of the energy per mass of a substance (gravimetric energy density, unit Joule / g). -> more

Energy payback time
The time in which a power plant has generated the same amount of electrical energy as is used to build and operate it.

Discharge time
The discharge time indicates the period of time for which a storage system can supply electricity before it has to be charged again.

Harvest factor
The harvest factor of a power plant describes the ratio of the useful energy released during its production time to the energy used for construction and operation. -> more

F.

Functional unit
According to ISO standard: Quantified benefit of a product system for use as a reference unit (reference value) in a life cycle assessment study.

G

Global warming
Global warming describes the current increase in global warmth, which can be seen, among other things, in the measurable increase in the global average temperature. -> more

gondola
Nacelle of a wind turbine, in which the generator and possibly the gearbox are housed.

H

I.

Input
Substance or energy that is added to a process. Note: Substances can include resources, raw materials, intermediates and products / services.

Installed capacity
see power plant capacity

J

K

carcinogen
Substance or product that causes cancer.

KFG
Motor Vehicle Act

Power plant capacity
The power plant capacity or installed power is the specification of the maximum electrical power that can be delivered by a power plant.

L.

Load factor
The load factor of a power plant describes the ratio of work actually performed to nominal work.

Run-of-river power plant
Run-of-river power plants or run-of-river power plants convert the power of flowing water into electrical energy. -> more

LGBl.
State Law Gazette

Life cycle assessment
English term for life cycle assessment.

M.

module
In connection with a life cycle assessment according to ISO standard: Smallest part of a product system for which data is collected in order to create a life cycle assessment.

MRG
Tenancy Law

N

O

Life cycle assessment
A life cycle assessment is a method with which the effects of a product on the environment can be estimated. Life stages, raw material extraction, production, processing, transport, use, reuse and disposal are examined for their environmental relevance. There are no uniform agreements with regard to the method, criteria and weighting of the criteria. In addition, life cycle assessments do not inquire about the benefits of a product, as e.g. product line analysis does.

Ecological Footprint
Statistical term that describes the area that cities actually need for their supply and disposal.

output
According to ISO standard: substance or energy that is emitted by a process. Note: Substances can include raw materials, intermediates, P te / services, emissions and waste.

P

Photovoltaic
Electricity generation using solar cells.

Product line analysis
A product line analysis (PLA) is a life cycle assessment that also shows the social and societal aspects of a product. It assesses a product with regard to all effects of the procurement of raw materials, its manufacture, its processing, its transport, its use and its recycling or its disposal. -> more

Product system
According to ISO standard: Summary of the processes linked by material and energy flows that fulfill one or more defined functions.

Process network
A synonym for product system in the life cycle assessment.

pumped storage power plant
A pumped storage power plant is a special form of a storage power plant and is used to store electrical energy by pumping up water. -> more

Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical breakdown of organic compounds, whereby high temperatures (500-900 C) force a bond break within large molecules into smaller ones. -> more

Q

R.

Repowering
Replacement of old wind turbines with new, more powerful ones at the same location.

Risk analysis
Qualitative and quantitative definition of hazards and the derivation of action plans to avoid environmental damage or to combat it effectively.

Grate firing
Grate firing is an incineration process in waste incineration plants. It is a solid fuel furnace in which the fuel burns lying on a grate, a support surface provided with openings. -> more

rotor
Rotating component of a wind turbine, consisting of rotor blades and a hub.

S.

Black start ability
The black start capability describes the property of a storage system to be able to start up from the switched-off state and provide energy without additional electrical energy. This property is particularly important in the event of total power outages.

Self-discharge rate
The self-discharge rate indicates what percentage of the stored energy is lost without active extraction per hour or per day. This variable becomes more relevant the longer the energy is to be stored.

Solar module
Ready-to-assemble system for generating solar power, consisting of a large number of interconnected solar cells in a solid, weatherproof frame.

Solar thermal power plant
System for generating electricity, in which a heat transfer medium is heated by solar energy in order to subsequently drive an engine (e.g. steam turbine, Stirling).

Solar cell
Semiconductor that converts radiant energy into electricity.

Storage power plant
Storage power plants use water from a reservoir to produce electricity. To dam the water, dams (dams, dams) have to be built. -> more

Electricity storage capacity
The electricity storage capacity indicates how much electrical charge, in ampere-hours, Ah, can be stored in a battery.

T

U

RRP
Environmental impact assessment

V.

W.

Wafer
Thin plate made of semiconductor material from which solar cells are made.

WBLG
Vienna Construction Noise Act

Inverter
Electronic component that converts the direct current from the solar modules into grid-compatible alternating current.

Wind openness
Also referred to as wind classes (taken from English) Not to be confused with the wind force. The wind speed divides the range of mean wind speeds (annual mean) into 7 classes depending on the height above ground. It serves as an evaluation criterion for the construction of wind power plants.

Fluidized bed combustion
The fluidized bed furnace is a furnace with which crushed fuel can be burned in a fluidized bed made of hot bed material (e.g. sand). -> more

Efficiency
The efficiency indicates what percentage of the energy supplied to the storage system is available again after storage. It describes the relationship between the power delivered and the power consumed.

WULV
Vienna Environmental Noise Protection Ordinance

WVG
Vienna Events Act

X

Y

Z

Number of cycles
The number of cycles or cycle stability of a storage unit provides information about how often a storage unit can be charged and discharged.