May naloxone increase blood pressure

NaloxoneDrug groupsOpioid antagonists Naloxone is an active ingredient from the group of opioid antagonists that is used as an antidote to counteract the effects of opioids. Naloxone itself has no opioid properties and is usually administered as an intravenous injection, but can also be administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The effect occurs quickly. The most common possible adverse effects include sweating, dizziness, light headedness, tremors, high blood pressure, nausea, and vomiting. Caution should be exercised in the case of opioid dependence, as it can trigger an acute withdrawal syndrome.

synonym: Naloxonum, Naloxoni hydrochloridum dihydricumPhEur, Naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate, Naloxoni hydrochloridum anhydricum


Naloxon has been commercially available as a solution for injection (Naloxon OrPha®, Naloxon Actavis®) and has been approved in Switzerland since 2004.

  • The information on the combination with oxycodone is shown under the article Oxycodone and Naloxone (Targin®, peroral).
  • As a fixed combination with buprenorphine, naloxone is used to treat opioid addiction (Suboxone®, sublingual).
  • In 2014, a naloxone autoinjector (Evzio®) was approved in the USA, which can be administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly by relatives in an emergency.
  • In 2015, a naloxone nasal spray for the treatment of opioid overdose was approved in the USA, and in Switzerland in 2018.
Structure and properties

Naloxone (C.19H21NO4, Mr = 327.37 g / mol) is anhydrous in drugs or as naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate, a white, crystalline, hygroscopic powder that is easily soluble in water.


Naloxone (ATC V03AB15) is a competitive opioid antagonist that reverses the effects of opioids. It has the greatest affinity for the μ-receptor. Naloxone has no opioid properties and is not addictive. The effects appear quickly after administration. The half-life is about 70 minutes.

Indications Dosage

According to the specialist information. In contrast to naltrexone, naloxone is not available orally and must be injected intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. It is usually given intravenously because this is the quickest way to work.


The complete precautionary measures can be found in the product information sheet.


Naloxone also removes the desired and undesired effects of opioids, such as pain relief.

unwanted effects

The most common possible adverse effects include sweating, dizziness, light headedness, tremors, high blood pressure, nausea, and vomiting. Caution is advised with opioid addiction because acute withdrawal syndrome can be triggered.

see also

Oxycodone and naloxone, tilidine, naltrexone, buprenorphine, emergency medication

  • Pharmaceutical product information (CH, USA, D)
  • Clarke S.F., Dargan P.I., Jones A.L. Naloxone in opioid poisoning: walking the tightrope. Emerg Med J, 2005, 22 (9), 612-6 Pubmed
  • European Pharmacopoeia PhEur
  • Goodrich P.M. Naloxone hydrochloride: a review. AANA J, 1990, 58 (1), 14-6 Pubmed

Conflicts of Interest: None / Independent. The author has no relationships with the manufacturers and is not involved in the sale of the products mentioned.

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This article was last changed on 6/6/2020.
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