How are programming languages structured
The programming languages are also part of the software, but can be used to develop other software. A programming language is an artificial language in the form of systematic sequences of instructions through which the computer learns what it is supposed to do.
Plant-oriented - problem-oriented programming languages
A distinction is made between lower programming languages (system-oriented languages) and higher programming languages (problem-oriented languages). Lower programming languages are equipped with a small range of languages. The programs that lead to a specific solution are correspondingly longer. In extreme cases, programming can be carried out at the binary code level. The assembly language is a good example of a lower programming language, but uses so-called mnemonics for better handling, i.e. commands that are easier to remember (e.g. STORE, ADD, JUMP).
Due to the limited scope of instructions, assembler programs could only run on certain processors. For example, on the 8086 microprocessor, the RET (return) command stands for the binary code 11000011.
Higher-level programming languages are usually easy to learn because they are made up of parts of natural languages such as English. In the well-known high-level programming language BASIC, commands such as IF COUNT = 10 THEN STOP (IF COUNT = 10 THEN STOP) can be used if the computer is to stop at a count of 10.
Here is an example with the BASIC programming language:
Interpreter Languages - Compiler Languages
Higher programming languages can either be interpreter-oriented or compiler-oriented. The programming language is an interpreter language. Recently, however, a compiler has also been developed for Basic.
In a first step, a source code is generated by the programmer. A compiler translates this source code into machine language and saves this translation in a separate file. In the case of personal computers, these files usually have the extension * .EXE. A file with this extension is EXEcute, i.e. executable. The source code cannot be viewed and therefore cannot be changed. The software industry only sells its programs in the form of compiled files.
An interpreter does not translate the entire source code into the machine code, but does this line by line. The working steps are therefore as follows:
- read a line in the source code
- translate the command (interpret)
- To run
- read the next command, etc.
In contrast to compiled programs, an interpreter makes a program slower because the program's commands have to be translated into machine language all the time.
Internet and programming languages
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
The internet has been very widespread since 1995. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a particularly easy-to-use Internet service thanks to its graphic surface. It is what is usually understood by "surfing". All pages that are created for electronic publication on the Internet are programmed in "HTML" (HyperText Markup Language). So also this annual work.
But today you don't have to learn this language any more. The creation of the pages is done by a tool, in turn software. You can create an HTML page with Microsoft's Frontpage, or with the Netscape Composer.
HTML is a page description language and can be compared to an interpreter language. The commands for controlling the text can be viewed, so they are not available in compiled form.
Here's an example:
In the upper part of the picture you can see the menus of the Netscape composer. You just write any text you want on a blank sheet of paper. Under the menu item "View" you can then see what the HTML code looks like. Text and commands are mixed. All commands are identified by the two characters "<" and ">". For example, the command tells the computer that an HTML page is available here. The title of the page is noted in the area. It is the text that can later be read in the browser at the top. The actual text of the page is in the part. The function of a command is canceled again if the command is repeated but preceded by a slash "/": , or indicate the end of the text section or the end of the HTML page. You can also create such a page with a normal word processing program. But that's very difficult because you can't afford to make mistakes.
Certainly the strange word "Publication" in the source code stands out. Since the umlauts ä, ö and ü are a typically German invention, the rest of the world does without these umlauts, the umlauts are represented by a trick: "ouml" represents the umlaut to the "o". The reference to the computer is limited by the two command letters "&" and ";". What will it look like with the "ä" or the "ü"?
The programming language JAVA was developed to make pages more attractive and interactive. It can be used to create the company's so-called Internet portals. These are pages in which you can enter data in the fields provided, which are then stored on a server of the page owner in question. These pages are also used in the commercial sector, for example, because they allow you to place orders or make inquiries.
Here is the definition of Java from Microsoft's Encarta:
"Java (programming language), object-oriented and platform-independent programming language developed by the American company Sun. Among other things, household appliances can be controlled with Java, and additional functions can be embedded in HTML documents (e.g. 3-D models or animations) A Java program must first be available in the source code before it can then be compiled into an applet. A Java interpreter is required to execute this. The Java applet is started when the HTML document is called. If the computers are using protocols of the TCP / IP family, the applets can communicate with each other. While the use of Java was initially limited to small programs, Office packages are now also written in this programming language. "
"Java (programming language)." Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2001. © 1993-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Annual paper: "The development of the computer" by Desiree Pschorn, 2001
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