Saud's house is Jewish


Follower of an islam that originated in the 18th century. Movement on the Arab. Peninsula that is a purification of what they consider depraved muslim. Aspired to practices and beliefs and based their request on the writings of Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhābs (1703-1791). A thorn in the side was the W. v. a. the widespread custom of seeking intercession from deceased saints. For this reason they vehemently opposed visiting mausoleums and places of worship and called for the leveling of all Muslims. Grave complexes. In addition, anyone who believes in islam should. Had made a creed, but unbelief - in the sense of W. - practiced, be killed. In general, every doctrine and every norm of action must be taken directly from the Koran and the prophet. Traditions (Sunna) are taken from (ijtihād) and not from the interpretations of the four schools of law. Practices that, in his view, could not be justified in this way - such as celebrating Muḥammad's birthday (Arabic maulid) - Ibn nAbd al-Wahhāb rejected as an unjustified innovation (Arabic bidʿa). Around 1746 the teaching of the W. became the predominant religious tendency on the Arab. Peninsula. The most important reason for its rapid expansion was its takeover by the powerful Banū Saūūd tribe based in al-Dirʿīya. Muḥammad ibn Saʿūd started the holy war (jihad) against the other tribes of Arabia, which he went to wahhabit. Standard declared to be unbelievers. By 1773 he and his followers succeeded in conquering all the surrounding principalities and a new one - now wahhabit. - To establish order on the peninsula. In 1805 and 1806 Mecca and Medina also fell into the hands of the Saʿūdīs. A major setback for the supporters of the new power was the capture of al-Dirʿīya by Egypt. Troops in 1818. The foundation stone for the final triumph of the W. as well as the Saʿūdīs on the Arab. Ultimately, Abd alʿAzīz ibn Saʿūd laid the peninsula with his conquest of Riyadh in 1902.

Winder, B .: Saudi Arabia in the Nineteenth Century, 1965. - Peskes, E .: Muhammad b. ʿAbdalwahhab (1703 - 1792) in conflict. Investigations on the reconstruction of the early history of the Wahhabiya, 1993. - Preuschaft, M .: Religion, Nation and Identity. An examination of the contemporary Saudi discourse on dealing with religious plurality, 2014.

Prof. Dr. Stephan Conermann, University of Bonn, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.