What is the most effective kill technique

Technique training in long jump

DLV Academy, Wolfgang Killing, Videos H. Hommel, with the assistance of Uli Knapp

Content:

Performance-determining components in the long jump

An optimal long jump is only possible if you have a very good sprinting or starting ability and a highly developed reactive jumping ability. Accordingly, these components must be developed as a priority in training.

Learning training

In the long jump, as in all other disciplines or sports, technique training is primarily learning training, i.e. it aims at neuromuscular interaction. If it is to work optimally, it requires a mentally fresh, motivated athlete. Accordingly, there should not have been any tiring loads before the technical training and the trainer should have ensured the willingness of the athletes to cooperate by means of a favorable attunement.

The trainer can reinforce the learning process through clear tasks and, if necessary, corrective advice, but otherwise endanger or even prevent it. In this respect, the trainer should think carefully about what he is saying. Ideally, he will find a language that the athlete uses for self-control, often this has an imperative character in the sense of small self-commands ("stretch your hips!", "Swing your legs short and fast!"). Such formulas then also help in competition for quick communication and control.

In the course of the training, physical fatigue must be avoided, but the athlete's willingness to accept and cooperate must always be ensured. In doing so, both under-demanding due to monotonous training ("grinding in", staying too long with a task) as well as excessive demands due to too many, even competing instructions, can endanger the athlete's motivation. If the athletes in a training group have different skill levels, the challenge for the trainer to do justice to everyone is increased again. In addition to collective tasks, individual requirements are then indispensable.

Conditional dimension

The horizontal jump training can be assigned to the technical training as well as the special jumping strength training. The multiple jumps in particular represent such an intense training stimulus that it must be taken into account when designing the training, if there are no unplanned effects in the direction of strength endurance.

In the case of individual climbing or long jumps, it is less the singular jump than the run-up that has conditioning-promoting components, which must also be taken into account in the sequence if sprint endurance training is to be avoided.

Target groups)

Horizontal jumps in their simple forms, as a climbing jump or jumping run, should be included in the training relatively early, i.e. at school age. In particular, climbing jumps with landing in the long jump pit or on soft floor mats are popular even at school age. A typical, joyful student training can be organized through an upstream box staircase.

Jumping sequences from a fast run-up or from greater heights, including climbing jumps with landing on the track and one-leg jumps, are something for advanced athletes at the end of their youth or advanced training. The trainer must be aware of this arc of tension when selecting exercises if he wants to select appropriate exercises for his athletes.

Because of their less intensive connective tissue, women and girls have problems to make jumps from greater heights, and here the hop or one-leg jumps are also meant. Indications of being overwhelmed

  • irregular jumps,
  • lateral shifting / bending of the upper body,
  • Turning out the foot,
  • Buckling of the talus on landing and
  • clear loss of speed in the jump sequence.

If these "symptoms" occur, the exercise must be abandoned or simplified. The one-leg jumps (left-left-right-right-left-left, etc.) are often a good compromise, but also an introduction to later one-leg jumps, which must be reinforced by stabilization training, especially core strengthening.

To the forms of exercise

The following is a long jump training session consisting of

  • general jump forms,
  • methodical steps to develop the running jump,
  • Jumping exercises and
  • Test exercises

demonstrated. Individual exercises have several functions, so in addition to developing jumping strength, jumping also includes technical elements that are important for long jump (knee use). This is made clear by cross notes.

General starting and jumping exercises

Knee lever up over Bloxx

  • From a medium-fast run-up, 8 to 10 foam bars are run over at a shortened distance (5 to 6 feet) with a markedly high knee.
  • Variations: Many other exercises from the ABC of running and the ABC of sprinting can also be transferred to the training of the long jump approach.

The exercise in the video

Swing leg training in the jump run

  • Hopping run with energetic swinging up of the swing leg and brief fixation in the air. The arms are raised in opposite directions up to about shoulder height.
  • Variation: Hopper run with diagonal swing leg insert. The swing leg is guided slightly inwards at an acute knee angle.

The exercise in the video

Climbing exercise with a three-way approach rhythm

  • Jump from three starting steps in series
  • Note: The athlete may only run and jump as fast as he can catch on landing.

The exercise in the video

Exercises to improve long jump landing

Stand long jump

  • From the final position, perform an energetic long jump onto the foam mat with emphasized arm insert and high legs (difficulty: on the inclined plane, here pole vault front mat).

Raise legs in support

  • In support on the parallel bars, raise your legs to the horizontal, hold there, possibly straddle, close again and lead back.
  • 3 to 5 repetitions

The exercises in the video

Exercises to acquire the running jump technique

Training of the arm use

Swinging legs with arm insert

  • While walking, actively place the ankle bone over the heel on the entire sole, swinging the swing leg at an acute knee angle upwards to the front and above the horizontal line of the thigh.
  • At the same time, the ankle bone, knee and hip joints are brought into extension and the arms are raised in opposite directions up to about shoulder height.

Walking exercise to train arm use in flight and landing

  • When walking, swing legs and arms are imitated in flight and when landing in a deep crouch.
  • The important thing here is the large amplitude of movement

The exercises in the video

Ascent jump in a single rhythm

  • Over low obstacles, from a reactive jump from the whole foot, a climbing jump is carried out forwards and upwards with energetic swing legs and an intermediate step each time.
  • 3 to 5 obstacles 4 to 5 meters apart
  • Continuation: ascent from the three-way rhythm

The exercise in the video

Ascent jump over exercise ball

  • From a middle approach, a long jump takes place with the swing leg placed on a large exercise ball, which is fixed approx. 3 meters from the jump, and then continues running / flying.
  • Note: This exercise is only for experienced jumpers who can touch the ball from above. In addition, the ball must be firmly fixed.
  • The exercise is a preliminary exercise for the running jump.

The exercise in the video

Telemark change

  • From a relaxed approach, there is a climbing jump from the box lid with swing leg return and landing in the step position on the soft floor.
  • Note: The step movement must be carried out completely.
  • The exercise is a preliminary exercise for the running jump.

The exercise in the video

Complete run jump

  • A complete long jump with leg changes, arm support, landing preparation and landing in the sand pit is now performed from the middle approach.

The exercise in the video

Jumping exercises

Jump run

  • Go from a few easy starting steps into a flat, rhythmic jump run with high swing legs with a horizontal thigh and right knee angle as well as actively gripping the foot on the entire sole of the foot.
  • Note: Always start up so quickly that an even jump sequence is possible (not the first jump significantly higher and further than the following ones).
  • Recommendation: Practice jumping runs in autumn on natural ground and on a slight incline, before competitions only on "hard" ground.

The exercise in the video

One-leg jumps over hurdles

  • From a relaxed approach, jump over small hurdles with a jump and landing on the same leg, then an intermediate step and a one-leg jump with the other leg over the hurdle, etc.
  • 2 to 4 hurdles with a height of 30 to 80 centimeters; 3 to 4 meters apart

The exercise in the video

Climbing series with an intermediate step (see also above)

  • High-long jumps with emphasized extension of the take-off leg and energetic use of the swing
  • After the jump, the take-off position is briefly frozen; only then does the preparations for landing begin.
  • Active landing with immediate continuation and preparation of the next jump.

Climbing series with several intermediate steps each (see also above)

  • E.g. ascent jump from three start-up steps in series
  • Note: The athlete may only run and jump as fast as he can catch on landing. As soon as this active landing can no longer be realized, the speed must be reduced.

The exercise in the video

Test exercises

Horizontal jump test

  • From the run-up, three climbing jumps are made in the distance, each with an intermediate step.
  • The measurements are taken from the front footprint on the first jump to the last landing on the swing leg.
  • Note: "If the athlete breaks in on the first landing," the run-up speed is too high.
  • Variation: Three climbing jumps with 3 intermediate steps each (only for advanced athletes)

Implementation of long jump training

The long jump training should be done in a fresh state at the beginning of the training, if possible, significant loads in the previous unit should be avoided. After a careful warm-up (running in, stretching, running ABC, climbs, general jumping paths such as hopping), the special long jump training can begin. 5 to 6 exercises are selected from the exercise catalog presented, which are appropriate to the respective ability of the athlete and the training section. These are then repeated two to five times before moving to the next level.

If the trainer is not satisfied with the execution, he has to go to the learning level, e.g. B. when changing telemark, stay longer, possibly even work with auxiliary exercises or further instructions (increased jump, delayed leg change) until a satisfactory level is reached. Since the number of jumps per training session is limited, especially in the case of fast, long attempts, after such a methodical loop you should forego any of the more extensive exercises originally planned.

In order to avoid the danger of over-acidification and premature fatigue, the trainer must ensure that there are sufficient breaks: With up to six start-up steps, the breaks should be a good two minutes, with a medium to full start-up 4 to 6 minutes between attempts.

After the long jump training, after an appropriate break (active, e.g. with core strength or medicine ball while sitting), a few more speed runs can be completed.

Embedding in the annual plan

On the basis of the following weekly plans, I would like to show, on the one hand, how the technique training is integrated into the rest of the training, and on the other hand, I would like to give an idea of ​​how the focus of training can be shifted over the course of a training and competition season. In the area of ​​technical training, this becomes clear through the increasing run-up lengths and thus increasing speeds.

Exemplary weekly training plans

 

Weekly training plan in the general VP
Table as JPG

Mon

Tuesday

Wed

do

Fr.

Sat

So

Warm up

Technique from 6-8 AS, approx. 20 jumps

TL 5 x 150-300 m

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Force (pull for repositioning /
Tearing, calf, kb.) 5-10 reps each.

Utilizing jump coord.

Running out, stretching

Warm up

General training

Medicine ball

Hurdle

3x3x120 m extensive TL (nI)

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Acceleration, sprint:
4x20-30 m,
4x60 m

Reactive two-legged hurdles:
2x4x3 spr.

Leak,
stretch

Warm up

Jumping power: 150 kl. Spr.
(e.g. uphill in the forest)

Running out, stretching

Endurance run

gymnastics

Break

Weekly training plan in the special VP
Table as JPG

Mon

Tuesday

Wed

do

Fr.

Sat

So

Warm up

Technique from 8-12 AS approx. 15 jumps

TL 4 x 100-200 m

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Force (see above), with increasing
Intensity: 3-6 reps.

Utilizing jump coord.

Leak,
stretch

Warm up

General training

Medicine ball

Hurdle

3x4x100 m extensive TL (nI)

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Acceleration, sprint:
4-6x20-50 m

Two-legged hurdles:
3x3x3 spr. (Higher)

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Long jump
technology

80-100 multilingual:
Jump run,
LL-RR

Running out, stretching

Endurance run

gymnastics

Break

Weekly training plan in the competition phase
Table as JPG

Mon

Tuesday

Wed

do

Fr.

Sat

So

Warm up

Strength training with individual tests

Utilize with kl. Spr.

Running out, stretching

Warm up

Technology, 5 initial checks

Jump tests
(Jump run, climb jump)

Leak,
stretch

Warm up

General training: medicine ball,
Stabilizer, etc.

3x3x80 m lawns

Leak,
stretch

Break

Warm up

Toning:
Warm up,
4x2 reactive
Hurdles,
3 sprints:
40-60 m submax.

Running out, stretching

Warm up

competition

Continuous run or break

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