Is Cynodon Dactylon Wind pollinated

Pollen

In Central Europe, wind, insect and self-pollinating (anemogamous, entomogamous and autogamous) plants are known, with mixed forms occurring.

The pollen of wind-pollinating plants was recognized early on as a major morbidity factor in allergic rhinitis. The pollen grains represent the male gametophytes of these plants and are used for reproduction.

After the flowering period, the plants are divided into early (January - April), middle (May - August) and late bloomers (September - December). However, this time division is by no means constant. For example, plants in the mountains occur as middle-flowering plants, which are counted as early flowering plants on the plains. Furthermore, there is z. B. in Germany a flowering delay from southwest to northeast.

In an aqueous medium, pollen has a size of 14-160 µm with an often oval or round structure. During airborne transport, they are often smaller and have an irregular structure when they dry out. The pollen content is surrounded by a tough two-layer shell, with an inner (intine) and an outer layer (exine). The surface structure of the exine is characteristic of each pollen of a plant species and can therefore be used to differentiate between different pollen types. Most allergens are in the intine.

In contrast to insect pollinating plants, in which relatively targeted fertilization takes place, wind pollinating plants have to compensate for the very ineffective mechanism of an undirected release of pollen into the air by producing large quantities. A single rye plant produces approx. 21 million pollen, a sorrel plant even approx. 400 million pollen (choice). The pollen must also be released easily and be able to float. In the case of birch, alder, hazel and oak, movable flower axes make it easier to shake out. The stigmas of wind-pollinating plants are mostly located in exposed areas. In trees, the flowering period is usually before the leaves unfold, which would be an obstacle to the spread of pollen (birch, hazel, alder, etc.).

The indicated flowering times generally apply to Germany, in the case of strongly fluctuating flowering periods within Germany for the Rhine-Main area.

Trees (alphabetical)

Birch (silver birch, warty birch, weeping birch, Betula alba, Betula verrucosa, Betula pendula Roth)

Birch trees are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from April to June. They are widespread in sparse forests, on poor pastures, in moors, heather, on acidic and barren soils, in mixed forests and as ornamental and street trees. In addition to the above, there are 3 other species in Germany.

In Germany, birch pollen has a very high allergenic significance. Birch trees are the trees whose pollen is most likely to cause allergies, and in Scandinavia they are the most common pollen allergy. They are of no importance in the Mediterranean.

Cross allergies are described with alder, hazel, oak, red beech, and nutritive with pome and stone fruit. The pollen is 16 - 31 µm in size and is considered an aggressive allergen (major allergen Bet v1, minor allergen Bet v2).

Beech (common beech, fagus sylvatica L.)

Beeches are wind-pollinating early and medium bloomers with a blooming period from April to June. They are common in forests on moist, well-drained, warm, sandy soils. In Germany, beeches are one of the less significant allergy triggers. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. Cross allergenities exist with birch, oak, alder, hazel. The pollen is 45 - 50 µm in size.

Oak (English oak, quercus robur L.)

Oaks are wind-pollinating early and middle bloomers with a blooming period from March to June. They are common in deciduous and mixed forests, often on deep loam and clay soils. Oak trees are common in Central and Southern Europe and America. In addition to the above, there are 7 other species in Germany, most of which are found in parks. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. Cross allergenities exist with birch, beech, alder and hazel. The pollen is 16-37 µm in size.

Alder (Alnus glutinosa L.)

Alders are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from February to April. They are widespread in floodplains and swamp forests, along streams and rivers and prefer nutrient-rich, lime-poor gravel, sand and clay soils. In addition to the above, there are 3 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance, but is considered an aggressive allergen. Monovalent sensitization almost never occurs. Cross allergenities exist with birch, beech, oak, hazel and poplar. The pollen is 14 - 35 µm in size.

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)

Ash trees are wind-pollinating medium-flowering plants with a flowering period from April to June. They are widespread in floodplains and ravine forests, along streams and rivers and prefer loamy soils. In addition to the above, there are 4 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance, but is considered an aggressive allergen. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. Cross allergenities exist with birch, possibly with maple, poplar, elm. The pollen is 18-26 µm in size.

Aspen (Populus tremula L., Poplar, Zitterpappel)

Aspens are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from March to April. They are widespread in sparse forests, on forest edges and as hedges and prefer nutrient-rich alkaline soils. In addition to the above, there are 6 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. There is a strong cross allergenicity with the birch. The pollen is 25-35 µm in size.

Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L., hornbeam, hornbeam, hornbeam)

Hornbeams are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from April to May. They are widespread in grass-rich deciduous forests, in hedges and on forest edges and prefer dry, moderately nutrient-rich sandy and loamy soils. In Germany, pollen is of minor allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. Cross allergenities exist with birch, hazel and poplar. The pollen is 22-36 µm in size.

Hazel (Corylus avellana L., hazel bush, hazelnut bush)

The hazel is a wind-pollinating early bloomer with a blooming period from February to March. It is widespread in the undergrowth of light grass-rich deciduous forests and prefers moist, nutrient-rich stone and clay soils. In Germany, pollen is of high allergenic importance, is considered to be an aggressive allergen and is the second most sensitive to tree pollen. Monovalent sensitizations are rare. Cross allergenities exist with birch, alder, red beech, grass. In addition, there are nutritive hazelnut sensitizations. The pollen is 18-32 µm in size.

chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., horse chestnut, horse chestnut)

Chestnuts are insect-pollinating early and medium bloomers with a blooming period from April to June. They are common as park trees and prefer sandy and clay soils. In addition to the above, there are 2 other types in Germany. Despite insect pollination, pollen can be detected in a remarkable amount in aeroplankton. In Germany, pollen is of low to medium allergenic importance. The pollen is 15 - 35 µm in size.

jaw (Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, Scots pine, Scottish pine)

Pines are wind-pollinating medium bloomers with a flowering period from May to June. They are widespread on inhospitable soils (rock, gravel) and in coniferous forests. In addition to the above, there are 4 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of little allergenic importance, because despite the relatively high pollen concentrations in the air, due to the low allergenic potential, there is little sensitization. Still the most important pollen allergen among the conifers. There are no known monovalent sensitizations. A cross allergenic exists with the horse chestnut. The pollen are 56 - 84 µm in size.

Linden tree (Tilia cordata Mill., Winter linden, late tree, Tilia ulmifolia Scop., Tilia parvifolia Ehrh.)

Linden trees are insect-pollinating medium-flowering plants with a flowering period from June to July. They are common in mixed forests, parks and prefer moist soils. In Germany, pollen is of minor allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitizations are rare. Cross allergenities exist with birch, poplar, willow. The pollen is 18-37 µm in size.

Olive tree (Olea europae L., olive tree)

The olive tree is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from April to June. He is a cultivated tree. In Germany, pollen is of no allergenic significance, but in the Mediterranean area, pollinosis is common. Cross allergenities exist with other olive trees (privet, lilac). In addition, there are nutritive cross sensitizations with hazelnut. The pollen is 17-24 µm in size.

plane (Platanus hybrida bread., Clothes tree, Platanus acerifolia auct.)

Sycamore trees are wind-pollinating medium bloomers with a blooming period from May to June. It is usually only found artificially planted as a park tree and on roadsides (origin: Asia, Balkan countries). In Germany, pollen is of minor allergenic importance. The pollen is 16-24 µm in size.

Black poplar (Populus nigra L.), white poplar (Populus alba L.)

Black and white poplars are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from March to April. They are widespread in light forests, floodplains and on bodies of water, also as a park tree, and prefer wet, nutrient-rich alkaline soils. In addition to the above, there are 6 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitization almost never occurs. There is a strong cross allergenicity with the birch. The pollen is 25 - 32 µm in size.

elm (Ulmus carpinifolia, Ulmus glabra L., mountain elm, elm))

Elms are wind-pollinating early bloomers with a blooming period from March to April. They are widespread in sparse forests, on the edges of forests and parks and prefer nutrient-rich alkaline clay soils. In addition to the above, there are 4 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitization almost never occurs. There is a cross allergenicity with birch and maple. The pollen is 28-38 µm in size.

pasture (Salix caprea L., willow)

Willows are insect-infested

deafening early bloomers with blooming period from March to April. They are widespread as pioneer bushes in forest clearings, on the edges of forests and parks and prefer moist, nutrient-rich, acidic loam soils. In addition to the above, there are 29 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of minor allergenic importance. Monovalent sensitizations hardly ever occur. Cross allergenicity exists with the poplar. The pollen is 16-28 µm in size.

Grasses / cereals (alphabetical)

Glass herb, upright (Parietaria officinalis L., wall herb, Parietaria erecta Mert et Koch)

The upright glass herb is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from June to September. It comes from the Mediterranean area, is rare in Germany and can be found in the fringes of alluvial forests and bushes, preferably on nutrient-rich stone and clay soils. In addition to the above, there are 2 other types in Germany. In Germany they are the Poles

In contrast, parietaria pollen is one of the most common causes of pollinosis in Mediterranean countries. Cross allergenicity exists with the nettle. The pollen is 12-17 µm in size.

Wild oats (Avena fatua L., wind oats)

The wild oat is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from June to August. It is found scattered as a cereal weed, preferably on nutrient-rich stone and clay soils. In addition to the above, there are 2 other types in Germany. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is strong cross allergenicity with other grasses. The pollen is 36-44 µm in size.

barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Barley is a self-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from July to September. It is a cultivated plant and thrives best in fields with moderately dry, alkaline clay and loess soils. In addition to the above, there are 2 other types in Germany. In Germany, pollen is almost of no allergenic significance. One of the factors contributing to this is that there is no significant pollen count. However, due to cross-allergenicity with all other grasses, there are often clinically insignificant sensitizations. The pollen is 34 - 55 µm in size.

Barley products, on the other hand, can be important for nutritional allergies.

Oats (Arrhenatherum elatius L., French ryegrass, meadow oats, false oats, oat-like honeydew grass)

The oat is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from June to July. It is often found in fat meadows, on roadsides and preferably in nutrient-rich alkaline loam soils. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. One plant produces around 3.7 million pollen. Cross allergenicity exists with all other grasses. The pollen is 27-44 µm in size.

oats (Avena sativa L., seed oats)

The oat is a self-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from July to August. It is an undemanding cultivated plant and thrives on sandy loam soils. In addition to the above, there are 7 other species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is almost of no allergenic significance. One of the factors contributing to this is that there is no significant pollen count. However, due to cross-allergenicity with all other grasses, there are often clinically insignificant sensitizations. On the other hand, oat products can be of importance in the case of nutritional allergies.

Honeygrass (Holcus lanatus L., woolly honey grass, horse grass)

The honeygrass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from June to July. It is often found in damp meadows and pastures, on cool loam and clay soils. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. Cross allergenicity exists with all other grasses. The pollen is 25 - 34 µm in size.

Dog tooth grass (Cynodon dactylon L., clouds of sky, tame Manna grass, Bermuda grass)

The dog-tooth grass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from May to August. It is often found as a pioneer plant on inhospitable terrain, in weed communities, on sandy, clay and loam soils. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. Amazingly, there is little cross-allergenicity with the other grasses. A major allergen has been isolated. The pollen font-size: "2"; font-family: Arial; color: windowtext "> Ball grass (Dactylis glomerata L., meadow ball grass)

The ball of grass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from May to June. It is often found in fat meadows and in weed communities. In Germany, pollen is one of the most common grass pollen allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. Cross allergenicity exists with all other grasses, spices, teas and honey. The pollen is 23 - 42 µm in size.

Lolch (Lolium perenne L., English ryegrass)

The Lolch is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from May to July. It is often found in fatty willows and lawns, at the edges of paths and spaces on clay and loam soils. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is strong cross-allergenicity with all other grasses. Several major allergens have been isolated. The pollen is 22-38 µm in size.

Corn (Zea mays L.)

Maize is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from July to September. It is grown as a crop on nutrient-rich clay and loam soils. Contrary to popular belief, maize belongs to the grass family. The pollen is almost without allergenic significance, even if it is quite aggressive. This is i.a. due to the fact that there is only insignificant pollen flow due to the pollen size and its sticky exine threads. In the immediate vicinity of maize fields, however, sufficient concentrations can be achieved in the aeroplankton. The pollen are 52-142 µm in size.

Corn products, on the other hand, can be of importance in the case of nutritional allergies.

Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., bluegrass, cattle grass)

The bluegrass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from May to June. It is widespread in meadows and pastures and lawns, along paths and dams on nutrient-rich clay soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the most common grass allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is strong cross-allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen are 20-26 µm in size.

rye (Secale cereale L.)

The oat is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from May to June. It is a widespread crop and thrives on slightly sandy loam soils.In Germany, pollen is one of the most common triggers of a grass pollen allergy and therefore one of the most common allergens. Rye pollen is considered to be the most aggressive allergen carrier among the grasses in Europe. One plant produces up to 21 million pollen grains. There is cross allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen is 52 - 65 µm in size. Rye flour can also be important in the case of nutritional allergies.

Stench grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum L., fragrant stalk grass, golden grass, lavender grass)

The stench grass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from April to June. It is widespread in poor meadows and pastures, in sparse deciduous forests, on dry, nutrient-rich, lime-poor soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the more common grass allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is cross allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen is 23-39 µm in size.

Fescue, taller (Festuca pratensis L., fescue, meadow fescue, Festuca elatior)

The tall fescue is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from June to July. It is often found in fat and bog meadows, on roadsides and prefers moist, nutrient-rich, alkaline loam soils. In Germany, pollen, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. Cross allergenicity exists with all other grasses. The pollen is 28-34 µm in size.

Ostrich grass (Agrostis stolonifera L., white ostrich grass, wind stalk)

Ostrich grass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from June to July. It is common on paths, in fields and gardens on moist, nutrient-rich soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the more common grass allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is strong cross-allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen is 25-35 µm in size.

wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Wheat is a wind-pollinating and self-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from July to August. It is a common cultivated plant and thrives in loamy fields. In Germany, pollen is only of minor allergenic importance. Cross allergenicity exists with other grasses. The pollen is 37-63 µm in size.

Wheat flour, on the other hand, can be important in the case of nutritional allergies.

Meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L., foxtail)

The meadow foxtail is a wind-pollinating medium-bloomer with a flowering period from May to June. It is widespread in moist meadows and pastures, nutrient-rich loam and clay soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the most common grass allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is cross allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen is 23 - 52 µm in size.

Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L., Timothy grass, timothy grass, sap grass)

Timothy grass is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from May to September. It is widespread in fat pastures, on park lawns and paths, on nutrient-rich, moderately moist soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the most common grass allergens and, together with other grass pollen, is of very high allergenic importance. There is cross allergenicity with all other grasses. The pollen is 30-45 µm in size.

Herbs (alphabetical)

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.,)

The mugwort is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from July to September. It can be found on the edges of forests and bushes, on roadsides, on dunes and preferably on nutrient-rich soils. In addition to the above, there are another 18 species in Germany. The pollen is 18-26 µm in size.

In Germany, pollen is of medium to high allergenic importance and is the most common herb pollen allergen. Cross-allergenicity exists with other herbs, spices (umbelliferous plants), celery, carrots. The common combination of herbal pollen allergy ("lead allergen": mugwort) and nutritive spice allergy is called Herbal Spice Syndrome or Celery Mugwort Spice Syndrome (Wüthrich) (e.g. chamomile, celery, anise, coriander, carrot, caraway, paprika, curry, pepper, mustard, garlic, bay leaf etc.).

Goosefoot (Chenopodium album L., white goosefoot)

The goose foot is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from July to September. It is found scattered as a weed and prefers nutrient-rich soils. In addition to the above, there are another 21 species in Germany. In Germany, pollen is of medium allergenic importance, but it is an important herbal pollen allergen. Cross-allergenicity exists with other herbs. The pollen is 19-30 m tall.

Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia, Ambrosia elatior L.)

The ragweed is a wind-pollinating medium to late bloomer with a blooming period from August to October. In North America, ragweed is one of the most important pollen allergens. It is very rare in Germany, but has been found sporadically and seems to be spreading. Several major allergens have been isolated. The pollen is 18-20 m tall.

sorrel (Rumex acetosella L., dock)

The sorrel is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a blooming period from May to August. It is widespread in poor grasslands, along roadsides, on dams, in weed communities and as a pioneer plant on moderately nutrient-rich acidic sandy soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the most common herbal allergens. Cross-allergenicity is not known, but grass pollen allergy is also common. The pollen is 21-33 m tall.

Plantain (Plantago major L., ribwort, Wegbreit)

The plantain is a wind-pollinating medium bloomer with a flowering period from June to October. It is widespread treading on paths, squares, on banks on nutrient-rich, dense clay and loam soils. In Germany, pollen is one of the more common herbal allergens. The pollen is 29-40 m tall.


Mites (alphabetical)

Mites belong to the group of arachnids and can be found all over the world (exception: high mountains, arctic regions, deserts). Over 30,000 species have been described so far. Some species live parasitically on humans and animals, such as the itch mite (scabies) and the house buck, others occur in food (storage mites). House dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) are of particular allergological importance.

Here is a small selection of allergologically important species in Central Europe.

Acarus siro (Edible mite II, flour mite)

As a storage mite, Acarus siro lives saprophytically in flour, other grain products and hay. Occasionally it occurs in house dust and mainly feeds on mold. The occurrence is perennial with seasonal fluctuations: maximum concentrations in summer. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 30 ° C, the optimal humidity 80 - 85%.

Dermatophagoides farinae (Bed mite, mountain house dust mite, American house dust mite)

As a house dust mite, D. farinae is widespread in most households around the world and lives intramurally saprophytically in bedding, mattresses, carpets, pets, upholstered furniture, textiles, etc. It occurs occasionally in grain products and hay. The occurrence is perennial with seasonal fluctuations: maximum mite concentrations in late summer to autumn. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 25 ° C and the optimal humidity is 75%. The mite is 250-450 m tall and feeds on organic material, in particular human dander, animal epithelia and molds and flour products. The main allergen is contained in the mite excrement.

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (House dust mite, bed mite, European house dust mite)

As house dust mite, D. pt. Is widespread in most households worldwide and lives intramurally saprophytically on bedding, mattresses, carpets, pets, poster furniture, textiles, etc. Its occurrence is perennial with seasonal fluctuations: maximum mite concentrations in late summer to autumn. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 25 ° C (10 - 32 ° C), the optimal humidity 70 - 80% (45 - 90%). The mite is 250-450 m tall and feeds on organic material, especially human dander, animal epithelia and mold. The main source of allergens are mite faeces.

Glycyphagus destructor (Lepidoglyphus destructor, hay mite, plum mite, storage mite)

As a storage mite, D. pt. Is widespread worldwide in stables and lives intramurally saprophytically on grass and hay, food supplies, animal feed, etc. The occurrence is seasonal, perennial only under optimal conditions: maximum mite concentrations in summer. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 25 ° C (25 - 35 ° C), the optimal humidity 90% (60 - 100%). The mite is 350-560 m tall and feeds on organic material, especially flour, rice, mold, dead insects.

Tarsonemus (Chironemus)

As a storage mite, T. is widespread in stables worldwide and lives intramurally saprophytically on grass and hay, food supplies, animal feed, occasionally also detectable in house dust. The occurrence is seasonal, perennial only under optimal conditions: maximum mite concentrations in summer. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 32 ° C (7 - 37 ° C), the optimal humidity 90% (60 - 100%). The mite is 75 - 160 m tall and feeds on organic material, especially flour, rice and mold.

Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Mold mite)

As a storage mite, T. p. Distributed worldwide in households and lives intramurally saprophytically on food supplies, animal feed, etc. The occurrence is seasonal, only perennial under optimal conditions: maximum mite concentrations in summer. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 32 ° C (7 - 37 ° C), the optimal humidity 90% (60 - 100%). The mite is 280-415 m tall and feeds on organic material, especially fatty foods (cheese, eggs, nuts) and mold.

Mushrooms (Alphabetical)

The number of fungus species that actually exist is unknown, as their external appearance, their metabolic behavior and thus their living conditions depend on the location. It is estimated that there are about 250,000 different species, of which about 100,000 are scientifically recorded. The majority of fungi are distributed worldwide and live as saprophytes of dead organic material or parasitically on and in plants, animals and humans. As a rule, they are not host-specific, but rather exist depending on the living conditions. Most mushrooms grow optimally at a humidity of 90% and temperatures of 20-25 ° C. Fungi are often referred to as molds in their entirety, which is taxonomically incorrect.

The allergologically relevant fungi can be divided into 4 sub-divisions:

- Zygomycotina (yoke mushrooms): about 600 species, belong to the lower fungi (Phycomycetes)

- Ascomycetes (sac fungi): about 45,000 species, belong to the higher fungi (Eumycetes)

- Basidiomycetes (mushrooms): about 30,000 species, sexual spores are formed by the basidia, belong to the higher fungi (Eumycetes)

- Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti): approx. 30,000 species

The Deuteromycetes are higher mushrooms with no known sexual stage. A large part of the fungi that are important for allergological reasons belong to them. If sexual spores are found in a species during new investigations, the species must be classified in a different subdivision and given a new name. This new name is given here in each case, but the species is listed under the known previous name.

Blastomycetes are unicellular forms of the D., of which yeast in turn represent a microscopic, primitive form.

Only a selection of fungi that are important allergologically will be discussed here.

Alternaria alternata (Black fungus)

Alternaria species are common worldwide and can be found in around 50 species. A. alternata is one of the most common representatives and lives extra- and intramurally saprophytic: wall mold, food mold, grain seeds, vegetables (black-greenish spots). Present in different soils and as a frequent air germ. The invasion takes place inhalatively or nutritively. The occurrence is seasonal: spore flight from June to September (main sporulation at noon). The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 20 - 30 ° C (2 - 35 ° C), the optimal humidity 90% (85 - 99%). A. alternata is an important fungus for respiratory allergies.

Aspergillus species

Aspergillus species are common worldwide and can be found in around 300 species. They live extra- and intramurally saprophytic with ubiquitous distribution: soil, water, air, plants, damp apartments, potting soil, air conditioning, food. Some species (A. niger, A. oryzae) are of great importance in the biotechnological production of food and pharmaceuticals and are therefore often ingested nutritively without being recognized.

Some Aspergillus species are among the most important fungi from an allergological perspective, some are also pathogenic to humans (A. fumigatus, A. flavus). The invasion usually takes place by inhalation, in some cases also nutritionally.

The individual Aspergillus species should only be mentioned here:

A. fumigatus, A. amstelodami, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. glaucus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. penicilloides, A. repens, A. terreus, A. umbrosus and A. versicolor.

Botrytis cinerea (Gray mold)

B. cinerea is the most important representative of the genus Botrytis, distributed worldwide and lives extra- and intramurally saprophytic: mold on decaying plant remains, food mold (fruit, lettuce), responsible for noble rot in grapes, can also be found in the sauna. Present in different soils and as a frequent air germ. The invasion occurs inhalatively or nutritively, the latter mostly through fruit and wine. The occurrence is seasonal: spore flight mostly from May to August (main sporulation at noon). The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 22 - 25 ° C (<0 (!!) - 35 ° C), the optimal humidity 93% (85 - 100%).

Chaetomium globosum (Hose fungus)

C. globosum is the most important representative of the genus C., distributed worldwide and lives extra- and intramurally saprophytic: the cultures are gray-black to olive-green. The fungus grows on cellulosic material, wood, paper, straw, also mold stains on damp wallpaper, etc. The invasion is inhalative, less often nutritive. The occurrence is perennial. The optimal temperature for reproduction and growth is 18 - 24 ° C.

Cladosporium species

Cladosporium species are extremely common in around 500 species worldwide. They live extra- and intramurally saprophytic with ubiquitous distribution: soil, water, air, dead plants, damp apartments, potting soil, air conditioning, food.

Cladosporia are usually present in a higher concentration in the aeroplankton than intramurally and are almost always the dominant mycoflora in the outside and inside air. The spores are not destroyed in the air by UV radiation and can be transported over long distances. The seasonal distribution can show pronounced seasonal peaks: for example, a sensitization to C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum, which are considered to be the most important C. species in terms of allergies, can often not be clinically differentiated from a grass pollen allergy, since extremely high spore concentrations in July and August occur in the aeroplankton. Nutritive sensitizations are also described for both.

Curvularia species

C. species can be found worldwide, especially in tropical regions, on grasses and various types of grain. Hpts. Seasonal exposure to high spore concentrations in the summer months at the time of the grain harvest. Also found intramurally in low spore concentrations. C. species are considered to be moderately allergologically relevant with mostly inhalative, possibly. also nutritive invasion route.

Fusarium species

F. species are widespread around the world with strongly regional differences. Mainly found on grain, fruit, in water and in the air. Maximum spore concentration in the summer and autumn months, especially during the grain harvest. Usually lower concentrations in indoor air.

Allergological relevance with regionally different characteristics, hpts. Inhalation if necessary. also nutritive invasion route. Species of relevance to allergies are F. culmorum, F. solani, F. vasinfectum.

Mucor species

M. species are distributed worldwide as soil fungus, in composting plant material, in animal faeces and also in damp apartments.

Allergological relevance with mostly inhalative, if necessary. also nutritive invasion route. Species of relevance to allergies are M. circinelloides, M. mucedo, pusillus, recemosus, spinosus.

Food allergens (Alphabetical)

Only a small selection of possible relevant food allergens is listed here.

Cow's milk

Nutritive allergies to protein components of cow's milk play a major role in infancy. However, they are not limited to infancy but also occur in adults.

The widespread use of cow's milk components in our food is well known.Often there is a sensitization to individual proteins (casein, -lactoglobulin, -lactalbumin, etc.). Due to the different sensitivity of the individual protein fractions to heating, some patients can only react to certain forms of preparation of milk (such as boiled, pasteurized, freeze-dried or instantized milk).

Chicken egg whites

There is a cross-allergenicity between allergens from bird feathers and hen's eggs (bird-egg syndrome) (see below).

soy

Soy flour and soy protein are extremely common allergens; they can be found in numerous foods: soy milk, cheese (tofu), flakes, sprouts, flour, meat, sausages, sauce, spread and pasta. The often hidden admixture of soy in industrially produced dishes is problematic: in fats and oils: soy oil in margarine, vegetable oil, cooking oil, mayonnaise and in dressings, sauces and soups. It is widespread in all kinds of baked goods (bread, rolls, pastries), baking mixes, ready-made dough, and fiber-enriched bread. Confectionery such as chocolate, ready meals, desserts, spice mixes e.g. curry, bouillon cubes, "coffee whiteners", baby and child foods and Asian dishes.

Guar (E 412), Locust bean gum (E 410)

Guar gum is obtained from the Indian guar bean, carob gum from the seeds of the carob tree fruit. Both are used as food additives in numerous products for thickening and stabilizing ("thickeners", "stabilizers", "binders" or "baking agents").

Guar is used as a swelling agent for. B. in yogurt, soft ice cream, ready-made sauces and puddings as well as in bread. Guar gum and locust bean gum are as widely used as soy. These flours are hydrocolloids that are often added - especially low-calorie - ready-to-eat foods, on the one hand to bind water and at the same time to give the food a certain smoothness, as is normally achieved by adding creme fraiche, which is very high-calorie .

Spices, celery

see herbs

Barley, oats, corn, rye, wheat

see cereals

Molds, yeasts (see above)

For thousands of years people have used various mushrooms to prepare food. Only milk products (cheese, yoghurt), cereal products (bread and beer) and fruit products (cider and wine) are listed here as examples. Molds, especially their metabolic products and enzymes, are now part of the basic equipment of the food and beverage industry (Grampp). The annual world production in tons of pure enzyme protein for the molds Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Mucorarten alone is over 500 tons. (Reed). Enzymes from fungi are used, from the brewing industry to bread and jam production to the removal of oxygen from canned food and dry prepared foods, as well as the removal of water from dairy foods. But also "naturally" produced foods and drinks such as wine, musts, fruit juices and jams can contain fungal spores in varying concentrations.

The following are also important:

- Meat, fish, mussels and shellfish

- food additives

Animal allergens (Alphabetical)

dogs

The frequency of sensitization to dogs is highly dependent on the particular breed. Boxers and schnauzers have the highest sensitization rates of around 30% (for people exposed to allergens), while beagles and shepherds, for example, only have sensitization rates of around 5 - 7%.

The sources of allergens are usually skin epithelia, hair, excrement and saliva. 20 antigens are known, the major antigen Can f I was only recently identified.

cat

Cat allergens are among the most potent inhalation allergens of animal origin and are the most common animal sensitization in Europe. The major allergen Fel d I and 18 other allergens are known. For a long time it was assumed that Fel d I comes from the saliva and the sebum glands of the animal and that cat hair is only contaminated with this allergen by licking the fur and secretions from the sebum glands. More recent investigations have now been able to show, on the basis of protein sequence analyzes, that Fel d I is formed in the cat's skin (morning star). This is of practical importance as it allows the allergen concentration on the cat to be reduced by frequent washing. However, if the cat's fur had been contaminated by saliva as a secondary source, washing the cat would not have made sense, as cats are known to have a tendency to lick the fur continuously after washing.

Fel d I is usually bound to small suspended particles with a diameter of 5-10 µm, so it only sediments very slowly and therefore remains in the air we breathe for a very long time. Sensitization frequencies of approx. 55% in exposed persons are described, cross allergies exist with almost all domestic cat species and many wild cats.

Guinea pig

Guinea pigs are major inhalation allergen generators. The frequency of sensitization in exposed persons is approx. 60%. As a source of allergens, urine is more potent than fur hair.

Horses

Horses are important sources of allergens. The frequency of sensitization in exposed persons is almost 50%. The frequent use of horse hair for fillings in mattresses, upholstered furniture, for horse hair blankets, etc., made horse allergens important as indoor allergens for a long time. However, this is falling sharply. The source of allergens is horse epithelium, less excrement and saliva. There are 23 known antigens, the major antigen is Ag11.

rat

The main source of allergens is the urine of the rat, less serum, saliva and the fur. The importance of the rat as a source of allergens differs greatly depending on the hygienic conditions.

Bovine

The sources of allergens are usually skin epithelia, hair, excrement and whey.

23 antigens are known, but no major antigen has yet been identified.

pig

The frequency of sensitization to pig allergens in frequently exposed persons is almost 60%. The main sources of allergens are epithelia and bristles.

Birds

In birds, excrement and feathers are the most important source of allergens. Important indoor allergen producers are budgies and other parakeet species, and with increasing importance also parrots. The frequency of sensitization of exposed persons to budgie allergen should be approx. 10%, to parrot allergen approx. 16%.

Pigeons also produce significant allergens. Clinically significant allergies develop mostly people with high allergen exposure (hobby breeders etc.)

There is an obvious cross-allergenicity between allergens from bird feather and chicken egg: Bird and egg syndrome.

Copyright 2011 by Schattauer GmbH, Stuttgart; www.schattauer.de;
from: Saloga et al. "Allergology Handbook", 2nd ed.