Most typewriters work with universal tapes
typewriter, mechanical device for generating typeface, in which, unlike type printing presses, the individual characters are printed one after the other.
The first attempts to manufacture typewriters go back to the beginning of the 18th century (Mill, England). The first factory production took place in 1841 Hansen (Denmark), but the machine did not become popular. In 1867 the basic invention was made by Latham Sholes in Milwaukee, Ver. States, made which with the participation of Soulé and Glidden, later Densmore and Yost through the gun factory Remington Sons was factory-made in Ilion, New York State. The first practically usable and widespread typewriter was named Remington Typewriter after the manufacturer.
The handling of all typewriters suitable for practical high-speed typing is done by pressing key buttons, which, arranged in a certain order, form the keyboard (key board) with the fingers of both hands. The movement is transferred from the buttons to the type carrier. The paper is placed over a roll serving as a printing pad, which is stored on a carriage and moved along the writing line at equal intervals by a switching mechanism, rotated after each line is completed and returned to the beginning of its path in order to produce the individual lines.
In addition to these perfect typewriters, simpler devices have also emerged since their use, in which the operation is not done by low pressure of keys, but by moving a body containing all types and by printing the letters brought into print position in this way. While the former (keyboard typewriters) allow typing speeds up to four times the normal typing speed of the nib, the latter (pointer machines) the typing speed usually does not go beyond the speed of pen writing.
With regard to the design, both the keyboard typewriters and the pointer typewriters differ from one another depending on the type of how the individual devices for generating the writing are designed and how the working parts are designed.
The main distinguishing features of the various key typewriters do not just relate to the way in which the keys are pressed mechanically into the printing of a letter on the writing surface, but also to the way the letters are printed blackened how the necessary number of keys and letters are to be attached and where the imprint will be made. Accordingly, a distinction is made among the key machines:
1. Type lever typewriters, in which a lever with a type stamp is brought to the stop by the low pressure of each key.
2. Type wheel- (- cylinder, boat) - machinerywhich combine all types in a rotatable type body.
3. Tape machines, in which the impact of the types through the fabric of an ink-soaked ribbon inserted between letter and paper causes the writing to be imprinted.
4. Ink pad machinesi.e. those in which each letter is automatically colored on an ink pad before it hits the paper and which are printed directly without the interposition of a ribbon.
5. Full stylus machines, in which only one letter is set in swinging motion by the low pressure of a key and only this one letter can be printed.
6. Switching machineswhich set two or more letters in motion at the touch of a button, one of which is printed, depending on the position of the printing substrate (roller), which is indented when a "shift key" is pressed down. 
7. Covered writing machines in which the impression is made in a place inaccessible to the eye at the moment of writing.
8. Open (Visibly) writing machines in which the imprint is open, i.e. at a point that is accessible to the scribe while writing.
In addition to the main differences listed above, there are also those with regard to the guidance of the paper or the levers and types, the type of line and letter arrangement and other activities, which can, however, be ignored here. - The above eight main features, two of which are mutually exclusive, allow sixteen different variations (classes). Within each of these sixteen classes there are special peculiarities in the arrangement and design of the type levers, the keyboard and the type wheel, which are specifically mentioned when the individual machines are listed. - A number of the machines that were executed are no longer being built, so they are currently only of historical interest. If they have found a significant use, they are briefly listed in the class to which they belong. The machines that are in use in Germany by name are to be described in more detail below, as far as the available space permits. The term "universal keyboard" used here describes the order of the keys used in the first typewriter (Remington) according to the frequency of the characters and the expediency of the location. The universal keyboard is used in almost all typewriters. The most famous and in traffic machines are with * marked. It is impossible to provide images of the machines and their individual parts without preferring to deal with certain systems; therefore the sales outlets have been indicated everywhere, from which further details can be obtained.
A. Lever typewriters.
Class 1. Type lever. Ribbon coloring. Full keyboard. Concealed writing.
Caligraph typewriter. Is no longer being built.
Cleveland machine. Similar to New Century Caligraph, has a peculiar type lever guide. Universal keyboard. Manufacturing seems to be abandoned.
Duplex typewriter, similar to Jewett, but with an increased number of levers and keys, has two small alphabets in their own arrangement and enables two letters to be printed one after the other at the same time. Is no longer being built.
*Frister & Roßmann typewriter (from the stock corporation formerly Frister & Roßmann, Berlin). Is built according to the model of the original Caligraph machine, has 78 keys, its own key arrangement, the type lever is positioned in a full circle. Special peculiarity: the axis of rotation of the tactile lever in a front of the keyboard.
Germania typewriter. German replica of the Jewett machine, manufactured by Scheffer-Hoppenhöfer, Sundern (Westphalia). It is not known whether such machines are still in production.
Hartford typewriter. Same finish and construction as Cleveland. Is no longer being built.
Jewett machine. Similar to New Century Caligraph, particularly differentiated from this one by the peculiar arrangement of the connections between the tactile lever and the type lever. Little, more in traffic. Manufacturing seems to have been abandoned.
New Century Caligraph. Similar to the Frister & Roßmann machine, only with a different arrangement of the tactile levers and buttons, without a stem. Is no longer being built.
*Smith Premier Typewriter (older design). Manufacturers: Smith Premier Typewriter Co., Syracuse N.Y. (America). Has 84 buttons and levers. Universal keyboard. Storage in a full circle. Special peculiarity: Long bearing axes of the levers at an oblique angle to the radius of the bearing circle. The tie rods are driven by horizontal shafts. Sales by the preceding company, Berlin branch.
2nd grade. Type lever. Ribbon coloring. Full keyboard. Open font.
*Barlock typewriter (also Columbia Typewriter). Factory: Barlock Typewriter Manufacturing Co., New York. Has 78 keys arranged according to the universal keyboard. Storage. the lever in a horizontal semicircle. The levers, which are upright at rest, strike backwards downwards. Peculiarity: For the sake of accuracy, the levers strike between upright conical pins near the pressure point.
*Smith Premier Typewriter Model 10. Manufacturers: Smith Premier Typewriter Co., Syracuse N.Y. (America). Has 84 keys arranged according to the universal keyboard, like the old Smith-Premier, but differs from the old design in terms of design and positioning of the levers. The levers are mounted in two circular segments lying in a vertical plane and swing in ball bearings from bottom to top, hitting the platen above the bearing segments at the front. The machine is designed with or without a column finder and decimal tabulator. Distribution through the Berlin branch of the manufacturing company.
Class 3. Type lever. Ribbon coloring. Switching. Concealed writing.
Densmore typewriter. Similar to Remington Standard; differs from this through articulated lever, the main bearing of which is made by balls. The machine is no longer built.
Elliot-Fisher (older design.) The machine is similar to a Remington, the levers of which swing down instead of up. While writing, the whole machine moves on rails under which the flat writing surface lies. It is therefore known as a book typewriter, but it does not seem to be built any more. 
Fox typewriter (older version). Similar to Remington. Is no longer being built.
Manhattan typewriter. Is the replica of the model 2 of the Remington machine and is no longer built.
National typewriter. Similar to Remington, but with a curved keyboard, with double switching; is no longer being built.
*Remington Standard Typewriter. Manufacturers: Remington Typewriter Co., New York. Models 2 and 3, 5–9 have easy switching and a universal keyboard. It is the oldest typewriter brand and typical of all lever type typewriters with a few exceptions. The levers of the models mentioned are mounted in a horizontal full circle and are driven by tie rods which are connected to the horizontal button levers. In order to increase the storage length, two floors of storage were arranged in the later models. Distributed by Glogowski & Co., Berlin.
Remington-Sholes typewriter. If the Remington standard is built similarly, it differs in that it is not the roller but the type lever basket that is switched over. It is unknown whether the machine will continue to be manufactured.
Grade 4. Type lever. Ribbon coloring. Switching. Open font.
*Adler typewriter.Factory: Adlerwerke, formerly Heinrich Kleier, A.-G., Frankfurt a.M. Is a replica of the Empire typewriter. Universal keyboard with double switching. Peculiarity of the design: the levers are structured. The part of the lever carrying the three types combined in one punch is not firmly connected to the actual lever, but slides on a horizontal path to the pressure point, after which the paths of the thirty levers run radially. The machine is designed with and without a decimal tabulator. Distribution by the manufacturing company.
Brooks typewriter. Its arrangement is a reversal of the barlock machine, in that the levers are behind the roller and strike forward. It is unknown whether the machine is still being built.
*Continental typewriter.Factory: Wanderer Fahrradwerke, formerly Winklhofer & Jaenicke, A.-G., Schönau near Chemnitz. Easy switching of the universal keyboard. Bearing and drives of the levers similar to the Underwood. Special feature: lock of the type basket, decimal tab of its own design. Distribution by the manufacturing company.
Daugherty typewriter is the former name of the Pittsburg Visible.
*Dictator typewriter (also Victor typewriter). Factory in america. Universal keyboard with easy switching. Segment bearing of the type lever. Front stop. Peculiarity: The levers are mounted in two pins that are approx. 25 mm apart. Vertical tape guide. Distributed by Hammacher, Delius & Co., Hamburg.
*Elliott (book) typewriter. In principle the same design as the older one, but thanks to a suitable lever arrangement, it allows the writing to be seen without lifting the machine. Factory in America. Distributed by Schäfer & Clauß, Berlin W. 8.
*Emmerson typewriter. Factory: Emmerson Typewriter Co., Chicago 111. Similar principle to Oliver with double switching. The levers hit backwards from both sides and hit the front side of the roller.
Empire typewriter, Predecessor of the Adler machine, built like this one. Made in America. It is not known whether it is still produced there.
English typewriter, manufactured in England, is a machine according to the Barlock plan, but with double switching. It is not known whether it is still being manufactured.
Fitch Typewriter. English make. Strikes the straight, flexible levers from back to front, along an inclined guide rail. It is not known whether it is still being built.
*Folding Typewriter. American make. Double switching. Small machine with segment bearings and the peculiarity that the upper part with the slide guide can be folded down forwards, whereby the machine takes up a very small space and can be easily carried.
*Fox Visible Typewriter. American make. Storage of the front stop levers in two upright segments. The machine is equipped with a tabulator and has easy switching. Distribution: Visible-Typewriter-G. m. b. H., Berlin SW. 19th
Franklin typewriter. American make. The barlock is built according to the layout, with two switches and a curved keyboard. It is not known whether it is still being manufactured.
Granville typewriter. Built according to the plan of the Empire or Adler, the only difference being that the parts of the articulated lever carrying the types do not slide on a horizontal surface, but in individual guides. Automatic slide return. Machine doesn't seem to be built anymore.
*Harris Visible Typewriter.Factory: Keller Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia. Double switching universal keyboard. Segment machine, based on the Underwood system. Details unknown.
Jackson Visible Writing Machine.Factory: Jackson Typewriter Co., Boston, Mass. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Strange lever position. Horizontal segment with an inclined lever position. Details unknown.
*Ideal typewriter.Factory: A.-G. for precision mechanics. Seidel & Naumann, Dresden. Universal keyboard with one switch. Segment storage. The segment is not vertical,  but inclined so that the types hit the roller between the foremost and the uppermost surface line. The machine is carried out with or without a tabulator of a strange design. Distribution by the manufacturing company.
*Chancellor typewriter. Factory: A.-G. for the typewriter industry, Berlin SW. 13. Curved system of the universal keyboard. Multiple articulated, front impact levers with eight characters each, which respectively by the attack of the button. can be divided by switching, in that the type carrier is shifted in the vertical direction by a sliding parallelogram corresponding to one of the four buttons mounted on a lever system. Sales through the factory.
*Mercedes typewriter. Factory: Mercedes Bureau Machines, G.m.b.H., Berlin SW. 68. Simple switchover with universal keyboard. Front stop. Segment storage. Entire storage rack with lever, basket and keyboard interchangeable. Automatic last line indicator. Distribution by the manufacturing company.
*Monarch typewriter. Factory: The Monarch Typewriter Co., Syracuse N.Y. Universal keyboard with one switch. Segment storage. Types swinging in single bearings like the Remington. Distribution of the manufacturing company in New York. Main representative M. Römlinger, Berlin.
*Norica typewriter. Factory: Nürnberger Typewriter Works Kühren & Riegelmann, G.m.b.H. Simply switching universal keyboard. Storage: segment. Link between Barlock and Ideal. Distribution through the manufacturers.
North typewriter. North Typewriter Manufacturing Co., London. Similar in construction to the Brooks machine with few differences in the positioning of the feeler levers. Machine is no longer built.
*Oliver typewriter. American make. Double switching. Universal keyboard. The mounting of the 28 type levers, designed as U-shaped brackets, which strike from both sides towards the center, is arranged on symmetrical and horizontal straight axes that become smaller against the pressure point. The outermost brackets enclose the ones further inside, so that the next one is always smaller than the previous one. Standing upright at rest, the stirrups hit the platen underneath. Distribution by the Oliver Typewriter Society, Berlin SW. 68.
Pittsburg Visible. Factory: Pittsburg Writing Machine Co., Pittsburg Pa. (also called Daugherty). Double switching. Universal keyboard. Storage of the levers in a flat segment. Lever and button mechanism can be removed in one. Not known whether the machine is still being built.
Polygraph typewriter. Factory: Polyphon-Musikwerke A.-G., Wahren-Leipzig. Arranged similarly to the barlock. Double switching.
*Regina typewriter. Factory: Schilling & Krämer, Suhl. Similar to the Continental with a closed front. Easy switching.
*Remington Sholes Visible. Factory: Remington Sholes Co., Chicago 111. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Segment storage. Swinging band. Peculiarity: Not the roller, but the type basket is adjusted by switching. Distribution through the factory's Berlin office.
*Remington Standard Visible, Models 10 and 11. Factory: Remington Typewriter Co., New York. Simply switched universal keyboard. Bearing in two segment-shaped shafts lying in a vertical plane. Transport gearshift: one ratchet and two ratchet wheels. No. 10 contains a column finder similar to the new Smith-Premier, No. 11 a built-in decimal tabulator. Distributed by Glogowski & Co., Berlin W.
*Royal typewriter. Manufacturers: Royal Typewriter Co., New York. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Segment storage. Two versions; one in the Underwood style, the other, smaller shape, with a deep segment and a peculiar lever drive.
Salter typewriter. English make in the style of the Barlock. Double switching with curved keyboard. Not known whether the machine is still being built.
*Secor typewriter. Factory in Derby Conn. Easy switching, universal keyboard. Segment storage. Peculiarity of the letter switching by anchor mechanism. Strange paper holder. Distribution unknown.
*L.C. Smith & Bros Visible Typewriter. Manufacturers: L.C. Smith & Bros, Typewriter Co., Syracuse N.Y. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Segment storage. Front stop. Type lever stored in balls. Changeover by lifting the lever cage. Distributed by L.C. Smith Visible, Basel.
*Stearns Visible Typewriter. Factory: E.C. Stearns & Co., Syracuse N.Y. Similar to Underwood. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Segment storage. Built-in decimal tab. Distribution through the manufacturers.
*Stöwer typewriter. Factory: Bernhard Stöwer A.-G., Stettin. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Storage and system like the Underwood, but closed at the front. Sales through the factory.
* Sun typewriter. Factory: The Sun Typewriter Co., New York. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Segment storage. Light machine. Peculiarity: Can be used as a tape machine and with roller dye. Distribution unknown.
*Torpedo typewriter.Factory: Weilwerke, G.m.b.H., Rödelheim near Frankfurt a.M. Universal keyboard with easy switching. Segment storage. Peculiarity: adjustable slide for copies. Distributed through the factory. 
*Underwood typewriter. Factory: Underwood Typewriter Co., New York. Universal keyboard with easy switching. Segment storage. Conveyor plate with brake. Typical brand for all stiff lever segment machines. Distributed by J. Muggli, Frankfurt a. M.
Waverley typewriter. Similar to the Brooks machine. It is not known whether it is still being built.
Wellington typewriter. Similar to Empire and Adler. Details unknown.
Class 5. Type lever. Pillow dye. Full keyboard. Concealed writing.
*Yost typewriter. Factory: Yost Writing Machine Co., Bridgeport Conn. Full circle positioning. Universal keyboard. Articulated lever. Type closure. Each type hits a guide sleeve at the pressure point and, when idle, rests on a felt pad soaked in color. The only difference between the latest versions, model 10–14, is the different length of the slide. Distributed by A. Beyerlen & Co., Stuttgart, Berlin, Cöln, Karlsruhe.
Grade 6. Type lever. Pillow dye. Full keyboard. Open font. Not executed.
Grade 7. Type lever. Pillow dye. Switching. Concealed writing. Not executed.
Class 8. Type lever. Pillow dye. Switching. Open font.
Maskelyne typewriter. Made in English. Williams typewriter type system with a horizontal segment. Double switching. Is no longer being built.
*Star typewriter. America. Similar to Sun. Double switching. Segment storage. Types are colored by touching a paint roller before the stop. Distribution: Visible-Typewriter Company m. B. H., Berlin SW. 19th
Williams typewriter. Williams Typewriter Co. Derby Co. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Articulated levers mounted in two flat horizontal segments, in front of and behind the platen. Types at rest on two color pads hit the platen from the back and front above. Not known whether still in production.
*Yost typewriter, Model 15. Yost Writing Machine Co., New York. Easy switching. Universal keyboard. Flat vertical segment storage. Articulated lever as with Yost model 1–14. Each lever has a separate interchangeable bearing. Type closure. Type hits a guide sleeve at the pressure point and hits the platen from the front. Exchangeable type basket including keyboard. Types can be exchanged individually. Column finder and decimal tabulator combined, available in any number of digits. Distribution: A. Beyerlen & Co., Stuttgart, Berlin, Cöln, Karlsruhe.
B. Character wheel machines.
Class 9. Type wheel. Ribbon coloring. Full keyboard. Concealed writing (not executed).
Grade 10. Type wheel. Ribbon coloring. Full keyboard. Open font (not executed).
11th grade. Type wheel. Ribbon coloring. Switching. Concealed writing (not executed).
Grade 12. Type wheel. Ribbon coloring. Switching. Open font.
Chicago typewriter (earlier Munson). Chicago Writing Machine Co., Chicago 111., America. Double switching. Type wheel (cylinder) rotatable around a horizontal axis, contains all letters. The tape is passed over the cylinder. The desired letter is set by rotating and shifting the axis of the cylinder as a result of the depression of the key and is printed on the paper inserted between the cylinder and hammer by a hammer striking from behind. It is unknown whether this machine is still in production.
Crandall typewriter. Crandall Machine Co., Groton N.Y. Double-switched curved keyboard. Type cylinder that can be rotated around a vertical axis is turned by keystroke, raised or lowered in the axis and at the same time struck against the platen behind it. The belt is passed between the cylinder and the roller. Machine is no longer built.
*Hammond typewriter. Hammond Typewriter Co., New York. Double-toggled curved fingerboard. Own key arrangement (ideal keyboard). Principle like Chicago. Type cylinder set by keystroke and imprinted by a hammer from backwards. But the type cylinder rotates around a vertical axis and instead of the rotatable cylinder, a type boat sliding in a circular guide was later arranged. Distribution: Ferd. Schrey, Berlin SW. 19th
Keystone typewriter. Keystone Typewriter Co., Harrisburg Pa., America. Similar to Hammond, only easier. Machine is no longer manufactured.
*Phoenix folk typewriter. Maschinenfabrik Merkur, G.m.b.H., Berlin SW. Double switching. Type wheel hits the platen. Strange drive. Cheap machine.
Class 13. Type wheel. Color pad. Full keyboard. Concealed writing (not executed).
Class 14. Type wheel. Color pad. Full keyboard. Open font (not executed).
Grade 15. Type wheel. Color pad. Switching. Concealed writing (not executed).
Class 16. Type wheel. Color pad. Switching. Open font.
*Blickensderfer typewriter. George C. Blickensderfer, Stamford, America. Type cylinder is set by keystroke and hit against the platen. Cylinder colored by color felt roller. Own keyboard. Distribution: Groyen & Richtmann, Cöln.
*Thürey reform keyboard typewriter Thürey Typewriter Society, Cologne. Double switching. Strange key layout. Type cylinder colored by rolling rollers.
Victoria typewriter. Rubber type cylinder, colored, own keyboard. No longer in production. 
C. Pointing machines.
Different classes could be distinguished here, depending on the shape of the type carrier, the wheels, cylinders, discs, plates, rods, etc. However, since most of these machines have been abandoned because of their low performance and are no longer built, they should only be mentioned by name. They are: American (Globe), American (Doppelrad), Boston, Crown, Columbia, Essex, Hammonia, Hall, Graphic, Kneift, Kochendörfer, Kosmopolit, Pocket, Odell, Merritt, People, Wislon & Torrey, World, Westphalia, Dollartypewriter etc Two new ones have recently been brought into trade.
*Liliput typewriter, manufactured by the German small machine works in Munich. A type plate rotated about a vertical axis by means of a knob is set and pressed down on the platen.
*Mignon typewriter. Union Typewriter Company m. B. H., Berlin W. 8. By setting a pointer on a rectangular index plate which contains all the characters, a type cylinder is set to the desired letter, which is made to be printed by means of ink ribbon by pressing a stop tape.
A number of typewriters not mentioned since peculiar construction method that does not correspond to any of the previous classes have partly been given up or only a few copies have been carried out.
If, on the one hand, the development of the typewriter industry strived for the greatest possible technical perfection, it cannot be denied that other influences also had an effect on the design of typewriters, some of which counteracted the former intention and made it less difficult to pursue it. These harmful influences emanated from the typewriter-using public, who, largely seduced by the advertising, attached great importance to the visibility of the writing while writing, while those who know the value of the tried and tested covert typing machines remained steadfastly with these machines. New ventures therefore preferred to manufacture typewriters with an open script. This led to the fact that even the most tried and tested factories began to abandon their previous design in part and to issue new machines with open script and switchover, but in part to produce new models of the specified type in addition to their established brands, so that typewriters that are openly printing from all factories today to be delivered. - The segment construction, which almost exclusively requires switching keyboard for the sake of advantageous storage, is technically less perfect in and of itself, because the laterally mounted levers always show unilateral wear, which is the main task of typewriter technology today to control by suitable technical means. See a. the patents class 15 g.
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