How can the word be interpreted poetically

What actually is an alliteration? And what is a polysyndeton? Paratxe, never heard of it ?! In the following article, the poetic design means or stylistic means in lyrical texts are briefly and comprehensibly described, so that no questions remain unanswered and nothing stands in the way of interpreting literary texts!

Alexandrians:
Rhyming verse with a six-lever iambus, which shows a clear interruption after the third accentuation.
Example:
“You see wherever you look, // only vanity on earth.
What he builds today // he will tear down tomorrow:
Where there are cities and towns // there will be a meadow
on which a shepherd // will play with the herds.
(Gryphius, it's all vain)

Allegory:
pictorial-concrete representation of something abstract
Allegory describes what the representation means (difference to the symbol)
(derived from Greek "to say something else")
Example: old man who represents old age.

Alliteration / alliteration:
same initial consonants of the stem syllable
(derived from the Latin "add" + "letter")
Example: F.ischer F.ritz fisch frish F.ische.

Alternation:
regular alternation of monosyllabic accentuation and monosyllabic lowering
(derived from the Latin "alternate")
Example:
“Solidly walled in the earth
If the mold is fired from clay. "
(Schiller, The Song of the Bell)

Anapest:
three-syllable verse foot, which consists of two short (unstressed) syllables and one long (stressed) syllable.
(derived from the Greek "strike back")
Example: "Anapäst" ()

Anaphor:
Repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of consecutive sentences or parts of sentences
(derived from the Greek "back relationship")
Example:
Is she then no matter what / who is aware of your doing? /
Is she also good and right / how does it bring bad pleasure? "
(Opitz, Francisci Petrarchae)

Antithetics:
Comparison of terms or content
(derived from Latin "against" + "assertion")
Example:
"Is love nothing / like that it ignites me?
(Opitz, Francisci Petrarchae)

Assonance:
Half-rhyme through the unison of the vowels
(derived from French "Anklang")
Example: “wiethe "," niethe "(Goethe, song of the spirits over the waters)

Asyndeton:
Order of sentences or clauses without conjunction
Opposite of polysyndeton
(derived from the Greek "unconnected")
Example:
"Itzt flowers tomorrow excrement / we are a wind / a foam /
A fog / a brook / a reef / a dew / a shadow. "
(Gryphius, tears in grave illness)

Prelude:
unstressed syllable (s) preceding the first accentuation at the beginning of the verse
Example:
"I don't know how / I sighed for and for."
(Gryphius, Tears in Serious Illness. Anno 1640)

Ballad:
originally a song sung for dancing
Today it is understood to be a briefly sketching narrative in stanzas that addresses a mysterious, extraordinary event with mostly tragic end from history, saga, legend or contemporary events.
The tension is released in the end, the punch line.
A distinction is made between folk ballads, which were passed down orally as simple stories, and art ballads, which are designed by a poet and usually have an artistic structure.
(derived from Italian "dance song")

Picture:
linguistic form of vivid but improper speech, d. In other words, the linguistic expression does not mean the picture, but something else.
Example: Hector is strong as a lion.
The linguistic image can take various forms, e.g. B. Allegory, cipher, emblem, metaphor, personification, symbol, synecdoche, comparison

Blank verse:
Rhymeless, five-lever iambus
Example:
"Let each of his unbribed,
Love free from prejudice! "
(Lessing, Nathan the Wise)

Dactyl:
three-syllable verse foot, which consists of a long (stressed ”syllable and two short (unstressed) syllables
(derived from the Greek "finger")
Example: "Dactylus" ()

Enjambement:
Line skip, end of verse and end of sentence do not match, thus special emphasis on content, signs of coherence / togetherness, increase in dynamics
(derived from French "exceeding")
Example:
“Hangs with yellow pears
And full of wild roses
The land in the lake "
(Holderlin, half of life)

Color icon:
concrete signs, in this case colors, which indicate abstract content
(derived from color + Greek "mark", "feature")
Examples of color symbols and their common meanings:

  • brown:
    Color of the soil, maternal color, symbol of humility in the Middle Ages
    also as the color of the National Socialists
  • blue:
    Color of infinity, longing, loyalty and reliability
    also as the color of mourning and the color of evil
  • yellow:
    Fertility, sensuality
    also negative as the color of the outcasts, the color of envy
  • green:
    The color of hope, life in the making, love
    also negative as the color of death
  • White:
    Color of purity, innocence, also as the color of mourning
  • red:
    Color of life, love, also for struggle, danger, blood
    in the Bible also for sin
  • violet:
    Faithfulness, also repentance
  • black:
    Color of misfortune, sadness, evil

Elevation:
Name for the stressed syllable in the verse, name z. B. with "-" or with "‘ "(opposite of lowering)

Hyperbole:
exaggeration
(derived from the Greek "excess")
Example:
“I don't know how / I sigh for and for.
I cry day and night / I'm sitting in a thousand melts "
(Gryphius, Tears in Serious Illness. Anno 1640)

Hypotaxe:
Addition of main and subordinate clauses
Opposite of paratax
(derived from the Greek "subordination")
Example:
"If I, deeply satisfied by your gaze,
I silently enjoy your sacred worth,
then I can hear the quiet breaths
of the angel who covers himself in you "
(Mörike, To the beloved)

Iambus:
two-syllable verse foot, which consists of a short (unstressed) and a long (stressed) syllable
(derived from the Greek "to spin")
Example: "Understanding" ()

Cadence:
Form of sending, monosyllabic (blunt or masculine cadence) or two-syllable (sounding or feminine cadence)
(derived from the Latin "to fall")

  • Example male cadence:
    “And fresh food, new blood
    I suck from the free world;
    How is nature so sweet and good,
    That holds my bosom! "
    (Goethe, On the lake)
  • Example female cadence:
    "Eye‘, my eye ‘, what are you sinking down?
    Golden dreams, are you coming back? "
    (Goethe, On the lake)

Concrete poetry:
Form of modern lyric poetry, which is based on language z. B. served from a visual or acoustic point of view (e.g. in the form of an ornamental arrangement)
Example: Morgenstern, Fisch Nachtgesang

Lyrical I:
Designation for the speaker in the poem (= narrator in epic texts) should not be confused with the poet, even if it comes very close to him in moods and thoughts

Metaphor:
Pictorial expression, pictorial support of the statement, reinforcement of suggestion in the service of appreciation or devaluation
Example:
"Let nature glow again in the heart"
(Goethe, nature and art)

Metonymy:
Renaming by interchanging related terms
(derived from the Greek "to get another name")
Example: "She reads Kafka." (The name of the author instead of the title of the work)

Meter:
Term for the smallest unit in the verse (= verse foot), several meters form the meter
Term for meter, which is determined by accentuation and duration and has the measure (verse foot) as the smallest rhythmic unit
Due to the natural emphasis on meaning, one differentiates between the verse feet iambus, trochaeus, dactylus and anapaest.
(derived from the Greek "measure")

Neologism:
Word creation
(derived from the Greek "new" + "word")
Example: "holy sober" (Holderlin, half of life)

Parallelism:
Repetition of the same syntactic additions
(derived from the Greek "parallel")
Example:
"From heaven it comes
It rises to heaven "
(Goethe, song of the spirits over the waters)

Paratax:
Stringing together of main clauses
Opposite of hypotaxe
(derived from the Greek "next to it")
Example:
"Ernst eats, Heike sleeps, Klaus sings, and Henriette reads."

Personification / personification:
Humanization
(derived from the Greek "person" + "make")
Example:
"Life has knighted him"
(Eichendorff, he's been awarded)

Poetry:
general term for seal
As a name for poetry, poetry stands in contrast to prose.
(derived from Greek "making, writing")

Polysyndeton:
Combination of individual words or parts of sentences with the same conjunction
Opposite of Asyndeton
(derived from the Greek "a lot" + "connected")
Example:
"The newspaper and the television and the radio and the Internet are important sources of information."

Prose poem:
Lyric treatment of a material, without end rhyme or exact meter, without particularly stressed rhythm (middle between rhythmic prose and free rhythms)
Example:
“The little house under the trees by the lake.
Smoke rises from the roof.
Was he missing
How dreary would be then
House, trees and lake. "
(Brecht, The Smoke)

Rhyme:
Consistency of two or more words from the last stressed vowel on
Example:
“Midnight was drawing nearer;
Babylon lay in silent rest. "
(Heine, Belshazzar)

Rhyme forms:

  • Inside rhyme:
    Rhyming words within a line of verse
    Example:
    "From heaven it comes
    It rises to heaven
    And down again
    It has to go to earth
    Changing forever. "
    (Goethe, song of the spirits over the waters)
  • End rhyme:
    Consistency of one or more syllables from the last accentuation
    Example:
    "Eye‘, my eye ‘, what are you sinking low?
    Golden dreams, you come again?“
    (Goethe, On the lake)
  • extended rhyme:
    Consistency of words that include elements before the actual rhyming word such as individual letters, prefixes or entire words, also called pre-rhyme
    Example:
    "Joy to the St.hereditary,
    the verdhereditary,
    creeping, hereditary Convert deficiencies. "
    (Goethe, Faust)
  • Chain rhyme / terzine:
    aba bcb cdc ded etc.
    consisting of five-legged iambs
    Example:
    "We're made of stuff like that to dream
    and dreams so open your eyes
    Like little children under cherry trees
    From its crown the pale gold barrel
    The full moon lifts through the big night.
    … Our dreams emerge in no other way. "
    (Hofmannsthal, On Transience III)
  • Cross rhyme:
    abab
    Example:
    “I vant âne huote
    the vil minneclîchen a stân.
    sâ dô spoke diu guote,
    , waz world ir sô given here ‘?
    (Albrecht von Johansdorf, I vant âne huote)
  • masculine rhyme:
    Rhyme ending in a lift (monosyllabic)
    Example: ring / thing
  • Couple rhyme:
    aabb
    Example:
    "Only above is the king's castle,
    It flickers, the king's entourage is noisy.
    Up there in the king's hall
    Belshazzar held his royal meal. "
    (Heine, Belshazzar)
  • pure rhyme:
    Rhyming syllables of two verses are completely identical from the last stressed vowel
    Example: usedeat / exteat
  • touching / identical rhyme:
    Consonance of two or more words from the last stressed vowel, which also includes the preceding consonants
    Examples:
    have / have (identical rhyme)
    eats / is (equivocal rhyme)
  • Shaking rhyme:
    Rhyming game by interchanging the initial consonants of the rhyming syllable
    Example:
    “Karl is doing today rcorrect sbad
    He gave with earlier sogar R.real."
  • Tail rhyme:
    aabccd
    Example:
    "When in the middle of the field I / Lord / death seized me /
    Who ran behind in a storm / in front of me in flames /
    The railway falls in front of me / and the huts above me
    Bumped into light splinters. But I / Lord / live through you /
    I was dead to myself / your angel watches over me /
    Always new is born / God will always pour. "
    (Gryphius, To the cruel thunderstorm)
  • encircling / embracing rhyme:
    degrad
    Example:
    "As often as the moon may shine,
    I remember you alone,
    My heart is clear and pure
    God wants to unite us! "
    (Brentano, The Spinner Song)
  • impure rhyme / half-rhyme:
    Rhyming syllables of two verses are similar but only imperfectly match
    Example:
    “And my soul strained,
    Spread her wings
    Flew through the silent Land,
    As if she was flying home. "
    (Eichendorff, moonlit night)
  • entangled rhyme:
    abc (abc)
    Example:
    "This house has dark windows,
    no ray has fallen through them for years
    and behind them there is eternal night,
    there are ghosts
    a thousand years of eternal torment
    a thousand years of eternal watch. "
    (Frank, untitled)
  • feminine rhyme:
    A rhyme consisting of an accentuation and a decrease, i.e. two-syllable.
    Example:
    „(…)
    the forest stands black and keep silent,
    and from the meadows rise
    the white fog is wonderful. "
    (Claudius, evening song)

Rhythm:
Harmonic movement of speech resulting from the meter and the stress following the natural sense
(derived from the Greek "flow")

Lowering:
unstressed syllable in contrast to the stressed syllable (accentuation)
Designation z. B. with "

Verse:
Combination of several verses to form a unit of meaning as a (also optical) structuring element of a poem
(derived from the Greek "phrase")

Symbol:
concrete sign suggesting abstract content
(derived from the Greek "mark", "feature")
Example: heart as a symbol for love

Trochee:
two-syllable verse foot, which consists of a long (stressed) and a short (unstressed) syllable
(derived from the Greek "runner")

Comparison:
Connection of two areas by means of a point of comparison ("tertium comparationis"), mostly with the comparison word such as
Example: “He's so strong how a lion."

Verse:
structured, poetically designed word sequence (opposite: prose)
(derived from the Latin "row", "line")

Orphan:
rhyming time within a rhyming verse
Example:
“Sitting leisurely in the workshop
Master Nikolas at breakfast;
The young housewife pours ‘for him,
It was in the clear sunshine. -
The sun brings it to the Day.“
(Chamisso, the sun brings it out)

If you have any questions about individual terms, just write them to us in the comments and we will answer them as soon as possible.

Source:
see Frank, Sigrid; Möbius, Thomas: ABC of the lyrical, epic and dramatic basic concepts. 3rd edition, Hollfeld: Bange, 2007.