Narcissists always gong to be narcissists

Narcissism and Leadership. An economic psychological investigation



List of abbreviations

Statistical key figures

1 Introduction
1.1 Structure of the work and procedure

2. What is narcissism?
2.1 theories
2.1.1 Sigmund Freud - Primary and Secondary Narcissism
2.1.2 Sandor Ferenczi - Pathologization of Narcissism
2.1.3 Michael Balint and primary love
2.1.4 Object relationship theory according to Melanie Klein
2.1.5 Narcissism Term according to Otto F Kernberg
2.1.6 Heinz Kohut - Self Psychology 12 2.2. Differentiation between narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder
2.2.1 The personality of a person Basic characteristics of personality development Characteristic ways of adapting personality development
2.2.2 How is personality disorder defined?
2.2.3 Excursus: Criticism of the term personality disorder
2.2.4 Formation and development of a personality disorder Vulnerability-stress model Model of double action regulation according to Sachse
2.3 The Narcissistic Personality Disorder
2.3.1 Development and course of narcissistic personality disorder Childhood rejection Oversupply in childhood Predictions of the child
2.3.2 Differentiation between narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder
2.4 Differentiation between narcissism, egoism, egocentrism, egomania
2.4.1 Egocentricity
2.4.2 Egoism
2.4.3 Egomania

3. Personality and managerial responsibility
3.1 Personality types
3.1.1 Intelligence, creativity and social competence
3.2 Narcissism and leadership
3.2.1 Excursus: What determines leadership success? Charismatic leadership
3.2.2 Differentiating between charisma and narcissism
3.2.3 Do Narcissists Lead Charismatically?
3.3 Risks of a Destructive Narcissistic Leader
3.4 Chances of a Constructive Narcissistic Leader
3.5 Summary Narcissism and Leadership
3.6 Male and female narcissism
3.6.1 Female narcissism
3.6.2 Male narcissism
3.7 Differences in leadership: did women and men lead equally well?
3.7.1 Why men are suitable as managers
3.7.2 Why women are good managers

4. The emergence and development of the NPI
4.1 Study and results by Emmons
4.2 Study and results by Raskin and Terry
4.3 Further findings from the NPI
4.4 Critical consideration of the NPI

5. Hypothesis formation
5.1 Object to be measured - Narcisstic Personality Inventory
5.2 The sample
5.3 Evaluation of the data collected
5.4 Problems of the sample
5.5 Possible further research

6. Conclusion

7. Bibliography I.

8. List of Figures and TablesI Appendix IIII

List of abbreviations

Figure not included in this excerpt


The term narcissism has experienced a renaissance in recent years: Political leaders, superiors or partners are narcissistic. Primarily, this term is negatively affected and hardly anyone sees the benefits of a narcissistic accentuation of the personality: charisma, eloquence, appreciation of employees and a strong sense of self-esteem. At the same time these qualities are attributed to a good leader. Accordingly, the question arises as to whether there is a connection between narcissism and the appointment of a manager. This question is especially relevant for management levels, which hire and evaluate leaders and, where appropriate, promote them through targeted coaching.

To address this issue, male as well as female leaders and non-leaders from small, medium and large ventures were surveyed using the standardized Narcissistic Personality Inventory measurement tool. On the basis of these seven hypotheses were explored that examined the seven factors of authority, superiority, entitlement, vanity, self-sufficiency, exploitation and exhibitionism. In fact, a one-tailed T-test found that the executives in this sample achieved significantly higher narcissistic values, suggesting that there is a positive correlation between narcissism and dressing a leadership position. For further surveys, new research questions may be formulated, since this survey may be e.g. does not ask if executives with higher narcissism values ​​are also better leaders per se. Furthermore, the question arises as to whether positive narcissistic accentuation can be worked out through targeted coaching.

1 Introduction

Narcissism. In recent years this term has become more and more common in various contexts. The bad working atmosphere is due to the narcissistic boss; the narcissistic partner is responsible for the failure of the relationship, whoever constantly uploads photos of themselves on social media platforms is just as narcissistic as certain political leaders. If you ask people to name their first associations with this term, they usually have negative connotations: self-loving, ruthless and selfish. The narcissist's behavior is described as pathological and one does not want to spend time with him because everything seems to revolve around him. It has become a fashionable term today. In the wake of economic crises, managers or bankers have been repeatedly described as narcissistic - both by the media and by society. They are for profit or they don't care about the needs of other people. This behavior is based on their personality and not in their economic interest for the company and the employees.

In reality, it can be observed that people with a narcissistic accent in their personality often lead management positions, build global companies and are viewed in society as forward-thinking people. Prominent examples of this are e. B. Steve Jobs or Bill Gates. Accordingly, the question arises whether narcissistic behaviors are harmful or whether they are not even necessary to hold high management positions in a company.

In today's society, the construct of narcissism is stigmatized, which prevents laypeople from seeing this part of a healthy personality as an opportunity.

Most people have clear requirements for managers that they have to meet in order to be assessed as subjectively “good”. In addition to hard skills, such as well-founded specialist knowledge, above all soft skills such as appreciation, a good feedback culture that strengthen the strength of employees and help to improve the weak. Ideally, there is a balance between leadership and responsibility, control and trust, as well as leadership and involvement. You demand self-confidence, innovative thinking and a strong conviction of yourself, your ability and, ultimately, of your employees from your manager. All of this is cited as a prerequisite for being a good leader, and it also describes a type of narcissism.

This thesis deals with the question of whether a healthy narcissism is necessary in order to meet the demands of a manager and whether this is even a requirement for success or improves leadership behavior. This question is particularly relevant for HR managers when it comes to hiring executives, but also to strengthen existing executives. Furthermore, it is examined whether there is a connection between narcissistic parts of the personality and the striving for leadership or power. It is also checked whether employees who do not hold a management position also display narcissistic behavior. From this goal, the research question can be determined:

Is there a connection between narcissism and filling a management position?

For reasons of easier readability, the simultaneous use of male and female terms is dispensed with. All terms apply in the sense of equality for all genders.

1.1 Structure of the work and procedure

The central aim of this work is to find out whether narcissism can be associated with holding a leadership position.

In the first part, the term narcissism is defined. This is done via the definition by Sigmund Freud, Michael Balint, Otto Kernberg and Heinz Kohut. The different currents and their respective differences are relevant to understanding narcissism. This raises the question of whether there is a difference between narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. This question is dealt with and analyzed in more detail in Section 2.2. Furthermore, the terms egomania, egocentrism and egoism are defined and, if possible, differentiated.

The second part of the thesis looks at the relationship between narcissism and leadership. It looks at what makes a good manager according to the literature and whether there is a managerial personality. The positive and negative aspects of a narcissistic manager are also discussed. In addition, it is discussed whether there is a difference between female and male leadership and whether one of the sexes has better basic requirements for holding a leadership position. In this context, the female and male narcissism is also described, which has an impact on the behavior of the respective person.

In the third part, the NPI (Narcistic Personality Inventory) questionnaire used for the survey is defined in more detail. The various versions of this measuring instrument are described and the various results are presented. The focus here is particularly on the work and results of Emmons and Raskin & Terry, who are also responsible for creating the NPI used in this work. Furthermore, the seven factors they developed are used to form hypotheses.

The focus of this chapter is on empirical investigation. After setting up the hypothesis using the Raskin and Terry factors, the survey procedure is described.

After evaluating the questionnaire, the hypotheses are checked and verified or falsified. In addition, the survey is examined critically and it is discussed which problems arose and how these can be solved. Finally, the results obtained are discussed.

2. What is narcissism?

Narcissism and narcissistic - these are terms that appear frequently in everyday language when describing people who are considered to be conspicuously self-indulgent, self-centered and reckless. Narcissism is understood as a one-dimensional construct that assumes that the transition between healthy and narcissistic parts of a person is fluid, right up to the pathological expression of narcissism.1 To understand how the term narcissism came about, it takes a leap of 3000 years to get to the poet Ovid. According to Ovid, a young man named Narcissus was courted by both men and women for his beauty, but turned them all down. One of the rejected asked Narcissus that he should experience firsthand the agony of unrequited love. The goddess Aphrodite heard this wish and made sure that Narcissus fell madly in love with his own reflection. Such a love will remain unfulfilled and so will Narcissus day and night in front of his reflection in the mirror. He neither drank nor aR and ultimately died.2 This story is believed to be the origin of the term narcissism - defined as a person in love with themselves.

It should be noted that narcissism must be clearly distinguished from narcissistic personality disorder. This topic is further elaborated in Section 2.2. Narcissism is a personality trait and should not be equated with a personality disorder, as not all areas of life are negatively affected. Narcissism doesn't necessarily have to have bad effects.3

Narcissism is characterized by a high level of self-love and vanity. Furthermore, narcissists are constantly on the lookout for recognition and admiration and at the same time feel a great fear of illness, which means that their reactions often appear erratic and unpredictable.4 Narcissists are said to seek admirers rather than friends, greedy for recognition and attention, and brag about what they can, have achieved and will achieve. The narcissist is characterized by a strong pursuit of power and dominance. Furthermore, he has great problems understanding the feelings of others and including them in decisions. Due to his lack of critical ability and disturbed self-esteem, it is often very difficult for the environment to deal with the narcissist.5

Even if the negative sides of narcissism are mentioned in society, it certainly has many very positive properties. Through psychological experiments by Delroy Paulhus it was found that narcissists in groups are already perceived by others as particularly open, conscientious, sociable and entertaining when they first meet.6

Experts assume that today's society is an ideal breeding ground for narcissistic behavior, it is elementary to assert oneself in a performance-oriented society and success can only be achieved if one acts self-centered. Furthermore, they convince and inspire others with their eloquence, their entertainment value and their self-confidence.7 They can assert their interests very well, stand up for their ideals and approach their fellow human beings in an open and open-minded manner.

However, in order to ascribe a clear meaning to the term narcissism, it is necessary to explain the various definitions that have emerged and changed over the past few years. Furthermore, over time, narcissistic personality disorder has been shaped, analyzed and interpreted. The following chapters deal with the different currents, the questions whether there is a demarcation between the terms narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder and how these express themselves. In addition, it is checked whether there is a demarcation between the terms egoism, egocentrism, egomania and narcissism.

2.1 theories

Over the years, different approaches have been developed to describe the concept of narcissism. However, these theories cannot always be clearly separated from one another. The theories that have been put forward seem to be almost infinite, so in the following chapter six are named, which are used to explain the concept of narcissism.

2.1.1 Sigmund Freud - Primary and Secondary Narcissism

Freud first spoke of narcissism in 1910, "with which, based on [the] libido theory, he tries to explain the object choice on which homosexuality is based."8

In Freud's first definition, a narcissistic individual treats his own body as a sexual object, which he strokes and caresses until he finally experiences full satisfaction. According to Freud, like homosexuality, this is a perversion. The concept of narcissism was described in more detail in his 1914 essay “Zur Introduction des Narcissism”. Freud differentiates between primary and secondary narcissism and explains narcissism by stating that the individual suffered a fixation on primary narcissism in early childhood and later regress to this phase.9

Freud understands primary narcissism to be a state that every human being goes through during the oral phase. This state is characterized by the fact that the child sees himself as one with his mother and cannot differentiate between the subject (himself) and the object (the mother). The child also controls his or her libido (sexual energy) completely.

In secondary narcissism, "the sexual energy is withdrawn from external objects and related to itself"10. This emerging state only occurs in later phases of life, after the person no longer merges subject and object, but considers both separately from one another. Nevertheless, in secondary narcissism, man withdraws his libido from external objects again and directs it towards himself. According to Freud, it is an elementary element of personality maturation and indispensable for the development of a personality, especially after disappointed love.

The primary narcissism model is not in use these days. It is a purely metapsychological, theoretical construct that cannot be proven with empirical means. The construct of secondary narcissism, on the other hand, is still used in today's practice. It not only forms a heuristic means, but can also be proven empirically.11 In 1931 Freud described the character of a narcissist as preferring to love over to be loved in his love life.12

2.1.2 Sandor Ferenczi - Pathologization of Narcissism

In 1924, Sandor Ferenczi modified Freud's construct of primary narcissism. Contrary to Sigmund Freud, who sees primary narcissism merely as a phase that every child experiences and overcomes during the oral phase, Ferenczi assumes that primary narcissism is the source “in which the ego arises in the first place and in which the Libido is subject to the longing for prenatal unity, fusion and incorporation. "13 While Freud starts from an inner-psychological conflict, Ferenczi takes the view that the central conflict is to be localized outside of the person, i.e. in the environment, who store the ego.

An important moment in the history of psychology is Ferenczi's explanation as he interpreted the term narcissism as a disorder for which the harmful environment is responsible.

2.1.3 Michael Balint and primary love

Ferenczi's student Michael Balint conceived in 1965 that primary narcissism is “the suckling's need [...] to be loved”.14 Secondary narcissism or "some form of active object love"15 arises only through a frustration of love. The child learns the active form of object love "in order to experience love again."16

Michael Balint focuses on the disruption between the development between mother and child, which can lead to a deficiency. "Avoidance of human proximity or the excessive search for proximity can be an expression of this lack."17

Balint's point of view is that Freud's descriptions contradict and are in no way compatible with one another. Freud described "on the one hand the primary object relationship, then the primary autoerotism and on the other hand the primary narcissism as the origin of the human relationship to the environment."18 Balint is of the opinion that the ego ideal can only be formed on the basis of secondary narcissism, "since every ideal can only internalize that which is derived from objects - mostly the mother."19

Instead of clinging to the "contradicting theories of primary objectless narcissism,"20 he developed a new theory of his own: that of primary love.

The goal of every human being is that he has an all-encompassing "harmony with his environment"21 manufactures.

Freud's theory is of the opinion that every person "has no relationship with the outside world at birth"22 Has. The child focuses its entire libido on itself. Balint, on the other hand, is of the opinion that the baby has been dependent on the outside world since birth, which influences its entire development. "The origin of the object relationship is the state of a harmonious entanglement of the Fotus with the mother."23 Any disruption of this need can lead to serious negative consequences for the child. With the birth of the child, the outside world changes automatically and means that it has to be rearranged and adapted. The libido can now also be focused on other objects. But there is the possibility that "the harmonic relationship to an object is disturbed,"24 which causes the libido to be focused again on the ego.

The strong need to be loved is an integral part of the primary object relationship. "The subject must take the objects for granted."25 The condition for this is that the objects have no interests of their own "and their only function is to preserve the original harmony."26

2.1.4 Object relationship theory according to Melanie Klein

In 1945 Melanie Klein rejected Freud's concept of primary narcissism and "postulated that even in the suckling baby there is no love and no fantasies that do not include internal and external objects."27 Her object relationship theory is based on the assumption that object relationships are at the center of emotional life. In their view, narcissism exists when "with the withdrawal of external relationships and defensive identification with an idealized internal object"28 is available. According to Klein, however, narcissism is always associated with envy and aggression.

Melanie Klein speaks of narcissism exactly where Sigmund Freud speaks of secondary narcissism.

2.1.5 Narcissism Term according to Otto F. Kernberg

Based on Sigmund Freud's first descriptions of narcissism, Otto Kernberg explained "the narcissistic personality disorder as an intense preoccupation with oneself, pronounced ambition, the striving for recognition by others as well as certain ideas of grandiosity about oneself."29 Kernberg also emphasizes that the notions of grandiosity go hand in hand with strong inferiority complexes and that the individual tries to hide this inferiority. Narcissistic people despise the people around them and behave exploitative towards them. Kernberg also mentions that narcissists display very envious behavior, but will never show it openly. According to Kernberg, narcissism is a serious mistake. Kernberg sees the reasons for this not, unlike Kohut, "in the child's frustrations and deprivations, but rather in the fact that the mother uses and abuses the child as a narcissistic object."30 Kernberg describes pathological narcissism, which must be strictly differentiated from normal narcissism. The extent to which pathological narcissism, i.e. a narcissistic personality disorder, is to be distinguished from normal narcissism is explained in more detail in Chapter 2.2.

2.1.6 Heinz Kohut - Self Psychology

Heinz Kohut took up the term self and developed it further. According to him, the self is the center of the soul universe of every human being. He was of the opinion that the self and the sexuality are independent and not, as z. B. in Freud's view, develop in parallel and with one another. Narcissism is not described as a mere stage of development on the way to the object, but has a meaning of its own.

Kohut sees the narcissistic personality disorder "in the constant fixation on the archaic large self and the archaic idealized parent-imago."31 Every child goes through different phases in the course of their development. At some point it realizes that the mother is an independent being. In order to compensate for the uncertainty caused by this, "it can write its illusionary feelings of omnipotence either to its own self or to the image, the image it has of its parents."32 According to Kohut, the basic need of every child is that their parents respond to them and acknowledge them. Furthermore, it is the child's goal to do justice to the idealized ideas of the parents in order to feel that they belong. Narcissism takes on "pathological traits when the parents' ability to react to the child is chronically inadequate or the child is chronically frustrated in its basic needs."33

Kohut analyzed the narcissistic personality disorder "on the basis of narcissistic transference and its lack of parental empathy."34 He published some of the character traits that make a narcissist in 1978. He added perverted fantasies, difficulty making contacts, a lack of empathy for others, and a strong need to peek. Also mentioned is "a feeling of exaggerated grandeur, excessive self-esteem and the need for attention."35

Furthermore, Kohut describes five narcissistic personality types:

1. The mirror-hungry personality is constantly looking for attention in order to suppress the feeling of inner emptiness and worthlessness
2. The ideal-hungry personality seeks "to be admired by others for their prestige, skills or power"36
3. The alter ego personality needs a relationship that "supports them in their own reality about themselves"37
4. The fusion-hungry personalities try to control and manipulate others in order to stabilize their own personalities
5. The out-of-touch personalities avoid interpersonal contact, even though they have a strong need for attachment

With these five personality types, Kohut says that the first three types can be classified as human and normal, while the last two can be classified as pathological narcissism. It is critical that Kohut does not name any clear narcissistic personality types, but only subdivides them.

2.2. Differentiation between narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder

Not only in literature, but also in common parlance, the terms narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder are often used synonymously. But the subtle linguistic difference between the terms is not only relevant for this work, but also for society in order to understand the behavior of those affected and to create acceptance.

In order to define the differences, it is first necessary to explain what a person's personality is in order to deduce which factors promote a personality disorder and how this develops. After narcissistic personality disorder has been defined and explained, a distinction can be drawn between the terms narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

2.2.1 The personality of a person

"The personality of a person is the sum of all of his psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that give him an individual, intrinsic identity."38 Personality encompasses not only the emotional life of an individual, but also perception, thinking and interpersonal relationships. The personality of every person makes them, with all these facets, unique and differentiates them from others.

Throughout life, the human personality is subject to changes that are influenced by the environment and society. Especially during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, the personality of every person is formed, depending on genetic predisposition and experience.39 In personal development, perception and interaction with the environment play a central role. Events in life, upbringing, interpersonal relationships, social fabric and environmental conditions influence personal development. These can be both positive and negative in nature. Experiences of violence, abuse, neglect, but also exaggerated concern for care influence personal development.40 In personality psychology, it has long been assumed that personality only developed after about 30 years of life. However, long-term studies have shown that the personality of every person changes and develops throughout their life.

Larger changes in personality in adulthood can usually only be brought about through longer-term behavioral therapy. Severe emotional experiences in adulthood can also change a person's personality in the short term.41

The personality of a person can be viewed from both a structural and a procedural perspective. "The structure of the individual personality is the total system of its fundamental physical and psychological characteristics, its characteristic ways of adapting [...] as well as its self and continued life, which is unique at every point of development of a certain human individual."42 The process of personality describes the development of the personality of the human individual over his entire life. The unmistakable course of an individual personality development results from the resulting dynamics, the interaction of the characteristic personality systems and the respective external circumstances. Basic characteristics of personality development

This includes both genetic and physical characteristics of a person, such as B. age, gender, appearance, general and specific skills such as intelligence, creativity, perceptual styles, thinking, dispositions of motives and interests, e.g. B. personal or factual interests, need for power, control, etc., temperament and personality traits, such as the Big Five personality factors neuroticism, conscientiousness, acceptability, extraversion and openness.43 Characteristic ways of adapting personality development

This includes daily routines and "specific skills in dealing with challenging or stressful situations"44 Roger that. Here "six classes of dynamic processes of personality can be distinguished"45

1. Emotional regulation processes

This describes all processes with which an individual tries to influence the manner, intensity and duration of emotions in a certain direction.

2. Identity formation processes

These include B. Self-discovery, search for the senses, but also personal goals and projects


1 See Onmeda editorial team. Narcissism: When Self-Love Becomes Harmful: The Narcissistic Personality Disorder. URL: Krankungen/narzissmus-die-narzisstische- persoenlichkeitsstoerung-23941-3.html.

2 See notifications from the German Association of Classical Philologists. Narcissus and Narcissism (Ovid, Metamorphoses 3, 339-510). URL: metamorphosen-3-339-510.

3 See Dealing with Narcissists. What is Narcissism? URL:

4 See Dealing with Narcissists. Nature of a narcissist. URL: eines-narzissten /.

5 See career bible. Narcissism: A simple question exposes narcissists. URL:

6 See ibid.

7 See ibid.

8 Kathan-Windisch, R.M. Final thesis for training as a psychotherapist in existential analysis and logotherapy. URL: Kathan_Ruth_Maria_1997 _-_ AA_280.pdf.

9 Cf. Freud, p. 1924. On the introduction of narcissism.

10 Tor, F. Schizophrenia: Alone and yet not. Page 146.

11 See Narcissism and Self Disruption. URL: FUDISS_derivate_000000002943 / 14_DritterTeil_Kapitel_12.pdf.

12 See Kathan-Windisch, R.M. Final thesis for training as a psychotherapist in existential analysis and logotherapy. URL: Kathan_Ruth_Maria_1997 _-_ AA_280.pdf.

13 See Kathan-Windisch, R.M. Final thesis for training as a psychotherapist in existential analysis and logotherapy. URL: Kathan_Ruth_Maria_1997 _-_ AA_280.pdf.

14 Kernberg, O. Narcissism: Basic disorder therapy. Page 8.

15 Cf. Altmeyer, M. Narcissism and Object: An Intersubjective Understanding of Self-Orientation. URL: https: // + Balint & source = bl & ots = BtUtjKPMyw & sig = gStpnrxXuEgwH-Vg6Qnm- aaz710 & hl = en & sa = X & ved = 0ahUKEwjRuJ3W3ZrXAhXKWhQKHdG4DsIQ6AEIJzAA # v = onepage & q = a% 20Form% 20active% 20objectlove% 20BAlint & f = false.

16 Ibid.

17 Marriage Foundation and Family Atelier. Narcissism. URL: 20Atelier-Artikel / Narzissmus.pdf.

18 Jaremkof, D. Narcissism at management level. Career jump or obstacle? Page 14.

19 Ibid.

20 Jaremkof, D. Narcissism at management level. Career jump or obstacle? Page 14.

21 Jaremkof, D. Narcissism at management level. Career jump or obstacle? Page 14.

22 Jaremkof, D. Narcissism at management level. Career jump or obstacle? Page 15.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Wiki wall. Narcissism. URL:

28 Kernberg, O. Narcissism: Basic disorder therapy. Page 175.

29 Ehliz, B. Narcissistic personality disorder in the management floor. URL: 229151.

30 Marriage Foundation and Family Atelier. Narcissism. URL: 20Atelier-Artikel / Narzissmus.pdf.

31 Narcissism Blog. Analytical theories: Kohut, Kernberg. URL: analytische-theorien-kohut-kernberg /.

32 Narcissism Blog. Analytical theories: Kohut, Kernberg. URL: analytische-theorien-kohut-kernberg /.

33 Marriage Foundation and Family Atelier. Narcissism. URL: 20Atelier-Artikel / Narzissmus.pdf.

34 Ehliz, B. Narcissistic personality disorder in the management floor. URL: 229151.

35 Ibid.

36 Ehliz, B. Narcissistic personality disorder in the management floor. URL: 229151.

37 Ibid.

38 Neurologists and psychiatrists on the net. What are personality disorders? URL: https: //www.neurologen-und- Diseases/persoenlichkeitsstoerungen/was- sind-persoenlichkeitsstoerungen /.

39 See Schnurr, E. Career Spiegel. Personality development: life is a building site. URL:

40 See neurologists and psychiatrists online. What are personality disorders? URL: https: //www.neurologen- Diseases/persoenlichkeitsstoerungen/ what-are-personality disorders /.

41 See neurologists and psychiatrists online. Life events change personality throughout life. URL: messages / article / life-events-veraendern-die-personality-a-life-long /.

42 Schneewind, Klaus A. Lexicon of Psychology: Personality. URL: lexikon / psychologie / persoenlichkeit / 11379.

43 See ibid.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

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