What do we mean by standardization


Standardization is generally the unification of products, components or processes to one or a few variants (standardization). It is a standardization of objects based on certain templates. Standardization is the unification of goods, services and processes according to a certain pattern. The procedures for standardization are standardization and typification. The term can be applied to different areas. In the economic areas: Production area standardization and typing of parts, intermediate or end products. Invoicing area: standardization of costs (standard costs). The main purpose of standardization is to save costs and simplify work.

Standardization is the unification of production. Standardization and typing are summarized under the term standardization. What they have in common is that they aim to reduce costs by standardizing the product parts or products. While standardization has no decisive influence on the end product, the type is aimed at the design of the end product.

In statistics, standardization of a variable X is a special transformation of the type where the arithmetic mean and o are the standard deviation of the variable X. The standardized variable Z has the arithmetic mean zero and the standard deviation one.

In marketing: Standardization is understood to mean the uniform characteristics or implementation of marketing measures in the different countries in which one is active. “In the extreme case, this kind of standardization would result in offering identical product groups at identical prices and selling them through identical distribution channels. This method would be supported by globally identical sales and advertising programs «(Porter / Takeuchi, 1989, standardization 131). The globalization of the markets is seen as one of the basic requirements for standardized marketing (cf. Kotler / Bhemel, 2001, standardization 635f.). However, the question of the standardization of marketing is usually not to be answered in general, but only in relation to the individual marketing instruments.
The simultaneous processing of several markets within the framework of international marketing leads to the key strategic question of standardizing or differentiating market processing concepts. In the sales area there are execution and quality samples, so-called »standards«.

The basic goals of standardization can be divided into the achievement of effectiveness advantages and cost advantages. Potential increases in effectiveness arise, for example, through the use of advertising spill-over effects. The marketing effect is also increased through a uniform market presence and the resulting worldwide uniform image (cf. Mefferi / Bolz, 1998, standardization 159f.). Another advantage is that the customer is confronted with the same marketing mix in several countries he visits. This effect is gaining in importance due to the constantly increasing travel activity of consumers. Cost advantages of standardization arise, for example, from lowering development costs, advertising costs and shortening the development time (cf. Kux / Rall, 1990, standardization 79). Another significant cost reduction can be achieved through the use of cost degression and experience curve effects, which occur much more quickly with standardization. With global standardization, the aim is to also accept country-specific suboptimal concepts, since the additional revenues that arise due to differentiated marketing concepts are often not sufficient to cover the resulting additional costs (cf. Meffert / Bolz, 1998).

In the organizational area, standardization is achieved through the use of forms and preprinted forms.

In finance, it is the standardization of essential characteristics, e.g. of financial contracts, in order to make them suitable for regular, possibly stock exchange trading.

Designation of all forms of similarity or standardization of services (e.g. material goods or services) and service components as well as processes and process components. A standardization of services at the level of the service process goes hand in hand with an expansion of the service potential that can be autonomously planned by the service provider.

An important design goal to simplify, reduce costs and accelerate all operational processes. Advantages: Through various combinations of prefabricated assemblies, customer-specific end products can be assembled, the delivery time can be kept short because the reusable assemblies can be prefabricated without risk. The effort of almost all logistical activities depends on the large number of items. Here, too, standardization can open up valuable potential for rationalization.

See also differentiation, marketing strategy, global,

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