What is meant by bidirectional optical fiber

Technical aspects of optical networks

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1 Technical Aspects of Optical Networks Kurt Reichinger RTR-GmbH Dept. Technology Line Rights for Federal Authorities Page 1

2 Contents Chapter 1 Use of fiber optic cables on fiber optic infrastructure in front of the TKK on fiber optic infrastructure References Line rights for federal authorities Page 2

3 Chapter 1 Use of fiber optic cables (LWL) Line rights for federal authorities Page 3

4 Areas of application for data transmission Optical data transmission: Compared to electrical transmission, the advantage of a higher maximum bandwidth and insensitivity to electrical and magnetic interference fields; galvanic isolation; no crosstalk; no grounding required. Lighting and imaging in medicine and metrology Glass fibers and fiber optic bundles are used for lighting and imaging purposes, e.g. B. used on microscopes, inspection cameras or endoscopes. Mostly flexible polymer optical fibers are used. Sensors Measurement technology: fiber optic sensors in which the measured variable is not represented or transmitted by an electrical but by an optical variable, e.g. in areas that are difficult to access (dams) or under extreme conditions (steelworks). Laser Flexible transport of laser radiation in material processing and in medicine Lighting, decoration, art and architecture Laser show; LED-illuminated fiber optic bundle; Indirect lighting; translucent concrete line rights for federal authorities page 4

5 Comparison of service and technology bandwidths Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 5

6 Management rights for federal authorities Page 6

7 Use in different network levels Long-distance transport network (core network) High capacities Large distances National / international backhaul network Connection of core network Access network Lower capacities / distances Access network Hybrid network (HFC; NGA) FTTH network Source: Line rights for federal authorities page 7

8 FTTx (Fiber to the x) network types Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 8

9 Architectures in passive optical networks (PON) and active Ethernet networks (point to point - P2P) Passive optical network (PON) Active Ethernet network (P2P) Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 9

10 Network elements of the FTTH infrastructure Access Node or POP (point of presence) Feeder cable Primary fiber concentration point (FCP) Distribution cabling Secondary fiber concentration point (FCP) Drop cabling Internal cabling Active access node of the catchment area (e.g. OLT or switch). Large format optical cables and supporting infrastructure, e.g. Pipes or masts. Primary concentration point; Easily accessible buried or pole-mounted cable sleeve or external fiber optic housing (passive, no active equipment) with large fiber optic distribution capacity. Medium-sized optical cables and supporting infrastructure for cable distribution, e.g. B. pipes or masts. Secondary concentration point; Small, easily accessible buried or pole-mounted cable joint or external enclosure cabinet (passive, no active equipment) with medium / low fiber capacity and large end cable capacity. End cables with a small number of fiber optic cables or blown glass fibers / pipes or tubes for connecting the participant properties. Internal wiring; Includes the devices for external fiber optic connection to buildings, the internal fiber optic cabling and the fiber optic termination unit, which can be part of the ONU Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 10

11 In-House Cabling Infrastructure elements: BEP Building Entry Point Splice or plug connection FD Floor Distributor (optional floor distributor) Transition from vertical to horizontal indoor cable OTO Optical Telecommunications Outlet (optical junction box) ONT Optical Network Termination ) Electro-optical converter (modem), can be integrated with CPE Source: FTTH Council Europe CPE Customer Premises Equipment (also SPE Subscriber Premises Equipment) e.g. Set-top box, router Line rights for federal authorities Page 11

12 Examples of the riser architecture FD OTO BEP BEP BEP BEP Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 12

13 Cost allocation of a passive fiber optic infrastructure Excavation costs, cable ducts, pipe runs, shafts, etc. ~ 80% fiber optic cables including laying ~ 15% installations in cable shafts, junction boxes, cabinets, etc. ~ 5% excavation costs, cable ducts, pipe runs, shafts, etc. Fittings in cable ducts, junction boxes, cabinets, etc. Fiber optic cables incl. laying Including manufacture, maintenance and servicing, acquisition costs, economic useful life, cost of capital interest Rough estimate: Depending on distances and location (urban / rural), number of fibers , etc. Management rights for federal authorities Page 13

14 Management rights for federal authorities page 14

15 Functionality and types of optical waveguides (LWL) LWL are from a physical point of view waveguides with which electromagnetic radiation can be transmitted from the ultraviolet to the infrared spectral range (approx nm) Depending on the core diameter and the difference in refractive index, the light beam can split into several (multi-) or just move through the fiber optic cable in a (mono) mode: multimode fibers cheaper equipment shorter distances local use e.g. in data centers, campuses, etc. Single mode (single mode) fibers distances of up to 100 km can be bridged without an intermediate amplifier Use in the telecommunications sector Source: Wikipedia Line rights for federal authorities, page 15

16 Typical structure of an optical fiber (LWL) fiber 1. Core Optical fiber made of quartz glass or plastic, in which the light is guided 2. Cladding by means of total reflection, holds the light beam together within the core 3 Protective coating (coating and / or buffer) Jacket coating, which provides protection against mechanical damage and moisture, usually consists of a coating made of special plastic (e.g. polyimide, acrylic, silicone) 4. If necessary, outer protective cover (jacket) Up to a few millimeters thick glass, plastic or metal jacket to protect individual fibers, e.g. for patch cords monomode multimode source: Wikipedia diameter (in µm) core (1) jacket (2) protection (3) up to 125 from line rights for federal authorities page 16

17 Fiber optic cables One or up to a few 100 fiber optic cables can be combined in up to 1 cm thick fiber optic cables The fibers can be grouped in cores, typically 6 or 12 fibers per core.Depending on the areas of application, different cable types are available, e.g. for underground and above-ground laying, laying in pipes and shafts, for in-house cabling (e.g. with bend-insensitive fibers), for laying in sewers, in gas or drinking water pipes, in tunnels, on the seabed, etc. Line rights for federal authorities Source: FTTH Council Europe page 17

18 Two basic fiber optic connection types Plug connections Mechanical connections using different connector types Simple and flexible connection and handling Greater signal attenuation (0.1-0.5 db) Splice connections Safe and low-loss (typically less than 0.1 db) connection method by melting the fiber ends with a brief Arc but requires special equipment (splicing machine) and experience Source: Wikipedia Licthbogen Splicing ended Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 18

19 Passive optical splitters Bi-conical fusible couplers Generation by fusing two coiled glass fibers Split ratio up to 1: 4, higher possible by cascading several couplers Planar splitters The optical paths are on the quartz chip (splitter / planar chip) Available split ratios from 1x4 to 1x32 and more compact, better insertion loss, broader spectrum compared to fusible couplers Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities page 19

20 Components for coupling and branching fiber optic cables Splice cassettes Contain individually spliced ​​fibers from two or more wires or cables Glass fiber sleeves Contains one or more cassettes Use mainly outdoors, in shafts and duct systems Splice boxes Contain one or more cassettes and switch panels with plug connections Use mainly in Protected indoor areas Distribution cabinets Contain one or more splice boxes and other passive and active equipment Use in indoor and outdoor areas (e.g. street cabinet) Sources: Wikipedia and FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 20

21 Laying the fiber optic cables in pipes Cable duct systems usually have several pipe runs.Depending on the pipe diameter, cables are laid directly in the main pipe or in sub-pipes The laying is usually carried out by pulling the cable through. For pipes with a smaller diameter of up to approx. 20 mm (micro ducts ) Cables are blown in using air pressure (or water pressure) The micro ducts are laid in sub-pipes or drawn in / blown in at a later date Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 21

22 to fiber optic infrastructure line rights for federal authorities page 22

23 Use of optical attenuation measuring devices With two devices, the insertion loss and return loss between two points of any segment can be measured.Two technicians required expensive Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 23

24 Use of OTDRs (optical time domain reflectometry) Optical time domain reflectometry, a method for determining and analyzing run lengths and reflection characteristics of electromagnetic waves and signals in the light wave range Position of each individual component, including fiber breakage and overbending, can be determined in the network Any losses and reflections at plug and splice connections as well as total loss and reflection measurable An (experienced) technician with a measuring device required Bidirectional OTDR recommended for increased accuracy Source: FTTH Council Europe Line rights for federal authorities Page 24

25 Use of clip-on couplers With a curved glass fiber, most of the light flowing through follows the bend, but part of the light radiates out of the fiber. A few percent of the light signal is sufficient to measure the optical power or all of the transmitted light Obtaining information The method is non-invasive and does not affect the protective cover or coating. Despite the low transmission losses of good splices or plug connections, there is also radiation there that can be evaluated. Even from a non-manipulated, intact cable, there is little radiation due to Rayleigh scattering Amount of radiation that can be evaluated, but with greater effort Source: EXFO Line rights for federal authorities, page 25

26 before the TKK on fiber optic infrastructure line rights for federal authorities page 26

27 Proceedings carried out to date in accordance with 8 TKG 2003 with regard to fiber optic infrastructure All notifications available under Type = shared use D1 / 09: Silver Server vs. ÖBB infrastructure due to empty piping on a route D1 / 10: Silver Server vs. A1 Telekom Austria due to unconnected glass fibers (English dark fiber) on 6 routes D3 / 10: Silver Server vs. Wien Energie due to unconnected fiber optics on 2 routes D1 / 11: Silver Server vs. Wien Energie due to unconnected fiber optics on two routes D2 / 11: Silver Server vs. Vienna Energy due to unconnected optical fibers on a route Line rights for federal authorities Page 27

28 Expert approach in a procedure Evaluation of the data provided by the parties (e.g. from applications and statements) Geographical route plans and route descriptions Positions of the individual network elements such as shafts, cabinets, segments, connection objects, etc. Segment and cable lengths Capacity and occupancy data of the individual cables or fibers on-site inspection Review of the data provided by the parties Collecting the evidence (e.g. records, photographs, etc.) Detailed inspection of relevant subject areas (e.g. cost data, actual occupancy situation, length information, exact positions of the network elements, etc.) Clarification of the outstanding questions The appraiser Creation of the appraisal Review and visualization of the geographical data (positions and lengths) using a GIS tool (e.g. Google Maps) If necessary, creation of the occupancy diagrams Calculation of costs and fees Expert assessment by us Economic reasonableness and technical justifiability Management rights for federal authorities Page 28

29 Example of the visualization of a route in Google Maps Line rights for federal authorities Page 29

30 VSt sleeve 1 object Example of an occupancy diagram VSt sleeve 1 object Cable 1 Cable 2 services Fibers 1-4 fibers Fibers 9-10 dead fibers 60 6 fibers = = connected cable 3 cable 3 EP2 EP2 fibers 1,2 + connections + reserve Not connected Fibers 3,4 + fibers 5,6 services EP1 connected EP1 reserve dead Fibers 60 6 fibers = 2 EP2 4 2 = EP EP1 EP1 connected: Reserve: dead: VSt: EP: Connected, with active services Connected, no services Not connected Switching center Customer endpoint line rights for federal authorities Page 30

31 References of line rights for federal authorities page 31

32 ITU-T standards () Multimode fibers and cables G.651.1: Characteristics of a 50/125 µm multimode graded index optical fiber cable for the optical access network Monomode fibers and cables G.652: Characteristics of a single mode optical fiber and cable G.653: Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted, single-mode optical fiber and cable G.654: Characteristics of a cut-off shifted, single-mode optical fiber and cable G.655: Characteristics of a non -zero dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber and cable G.656: Characteristics of a fiber and cable with non-zero dispersion for wideband optical transport G.657: Characteristics of a bending-loss insensitive single-mode optical fiber and cable for the access network G: Definitions, test methods and for single-mode fibers and cables Line rights for federal authorities Page 32

33 Further standards, committees and publications L.12: Optical fiber splices () L.36: Single mode fiber optic connectors () ITU-T Handbook Optical fibers, cables and systems, 2009 () International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committees 86 , 86A, 86B & 86C () FTTH Council Europe () European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization () Austrian Standards Institute () Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik () Management rights for federal authorities Page 33

34 Technical Aspects of Optical Networks Kurt Reichinger RTR-GmbH Technical Dept. Line Rights for Federal Authorities Page 34